Carlo M Cipolla Before the Industrial Revolution European Society and Economy 1000-1700 1993

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BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION European Society and Economy, 1000–1700 THIRD EDITION

Carlo M.Cipolla

London

First published in Great Britain in 1976 by Methuen & Co. Ltd Second edition 1981 Third edition first published in 1993 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Reprinted 1997, 2003 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.” © 1976, 1981, 1993 Carlo M.Cipolla Translation and revised material © 1993 Christopher Woodall All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Cipolla, Carlo M. Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy, 1000–1700. —3 Rev. ed I. Title II. Woodall, Christopher 330.94 ISBN 0-203-69512-7 Master e-book ISBN

ISBN 0-203-69597-6 (Adobe eReader Format) ISBN 0-415-09005-9 (Print Edition)

CONTENTS

List of illustrations, maps, and figures List of tables Preface Part I

vi viii xi

A static approximation 1 DEMAND Type of analysis Population Needs, wants, and effective demand Income and its distribution Types of demand Private demand Public demand Demand of the Church Foreign demand 2 THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION Classes of “inputs” Labor Capital Natural resources Organization 3 PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION Choice and productivity The determinants of production Medieval and Renaissance productivity levels Positive production Negative production

2 2 2 4 5 17 17 28 35 38 41 41 42 61 70 72 75 75 75 77 83 84

Part II Toward a dynamic description 4 THE URBAN REVOLUTION: THE COMMUNES

91

v

5 6

7

8

9

10

POPULATION: TRENDS AND PLAGUES TECHNOLOGY Technological developments: 1000–1700 The spread of technology ENTERPRISE, CREDIT, AND MONEY Enterprise and credit Monetary trends PRODUCTION, INCOMES, AND CONSUMPTION: 1000–1500 The great expansion: 1000–1300 Economic trends: 1300–1500 THE EMERGENCE OF THE MODERN AGE Underdeveloped Europe or developed Europe? European expansion The scientific revolution An energy crisis THE CHANGING BALANCE OF ECONOMIC POWER IN EUROPE Economic trends: 1500–1700 The decline of Spain The decline of Italy The rise of the northern Netherlands The rise of England

96 107 107 120 125 125 128 142 142 153 162 162 163 176 179 182 182 184 187 194 201

Epilogue Appendix tables Notes Bibliography Index

215 218 224 240 258

ILLUSTRATIONS, MAPS, AND FIGURES

ILLUSTRATIONS A Country Wedding by Pieter Brueghel the Elder French metallurgical works The Great Crane at Bruges The storage of foodstuffs in Strasbourg The Winged Mill by Johannes Stradanus The development of ships’ rigging, 1430–1600 Eighteenth-century English merchant vessel A water-powered throwing mill by Vittorio Zonca A mint at work during the Middle Ages Barter and the exchange of money Silver and gold coins A real de a ocho (piece of eight) The fluyt

19 48 66 70 112 114 115 121 130 130 140 140 201

MAPS Europe AD 1560 Italy during the Renaissance The spread of the Black Death in Europe, 1347–53 The spread of the fulling mill in various regions of Europe How printing covered the map English mints, Athelstan to 973 English mints, 973–1066 The Christian reconquest of the Iberian peninsula The foundation of towns in east central Europe The Danish peninsula Florence, showing the walls The Champagne fairs The historical formation of the Swiss Confederation The Portuguese advance along the African coast The routes followed by the Spanish fleets Popular revolts in France in the seventeenth century Spain in 1590

11 81 102 111 117 130 130 143 144 146 146 149 151 160 166 183 185

vii

FIGURES 1.1 2.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 8.1 8.2

Income distribution in Great Britain in 1688 and 1962 Age and sex structure of the population of Sweden in 1750 and 1950 Mortality and fertility in a French village (Couffé) at the end of the sixteenth century Trends in mortality, fertility, and marriage during a typical demographic crisis The mortality rate in Sweden, 1749–1950 Monetary wages of a building craftsman and a laborer in southern England, 1264–1700 Real wage-rate of a building craftsman expressed as a composite physical unit of consumable goods in southern England, 1264–1700 9.1 Rate of interest (A) and discount rate (B) on bonds of the Bank of St George, Genoa (Italy), 1522– 1620 10.1 Economic trends in selected European countries, 1500–1700 10.2 Trends in the export of raw wool and cloth from England, 1349–1540

9 43 100 105 106 158 158 167 184 203

TABLES

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8a 1.8b 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15

Approximate population of the major European countries, 1000–1700 Distribution of wealth in Florence (Italy), 1427 Distribution of wealth in Lyon (France), 1545 Distribution of grain reserves in Pavia (Italy), 1555 Distribution of income in England in 1688 according to the calculations of Gregory King The poor as percentage of the total population in selected European cities, fifteenth to seventeenth centuries Estimated breakdown of private expenditure of the mass of the population in selected areas, fifteenth to eighteenth centuries Structure of expenditure on consumer goods and services of three families of middle-class and princely rank in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Some examples of expenditure by aristocratic and institutional consumers in England Dates of construction and length of city walls in relation to population in selected cities Annual average expenditure provided in the budgets of the Commune of Perugia in the first decade of the fourteenth century Expenditure provided in the budget of the Kingdom of Naples, 1591–92 Size of the ecclesiastical property in selected areas of the Florentine Territory in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Percentage distribution of land ownership in Sweden between 1500 and 1700 Approximate value of English imports and exports, 1500–1700 Percentage age distribution of two preindustrial populations, Sweden (1750) and Italy (1861) Adolescents as percentage of total population in selected Italian areas, 1427–1642 Percentage age distribution of two industrial populations, Sweden (1950) and England (1951) Foundlings in Venice, 1756–87 Foundlings in Milan, 1660–1729 Estimates of population employed in agriculture as percentage of total labor force, about 1750 Occupational distribution of the population of selected European cities, fifteenth to seventeenth centuries Occupational distribution of males, aged 20–60, in Gloucestershire, 1608 Percentage distribution of families in Florence (Italy) according to number of servants, 1551 Domestic servants as a percentage of total population in selected European cities, 1448–1696 Ecclesiastical population in selected European cities, 1400–1700 Number of notaries, lawyers, and physicians in relation to total population in selected Italian cities, 1268–1675 Number of physicians in relation to total population in selected European cities, 1575–1641 Number of officially recognized prostitutes in relation to total population of Rome, 1598–1675 Age limits for acceptance into apprenticeship in selected trades in seventeenth-century Venice

3 6 7 7 7 10 18 21 22 32 34 34 36 37 39 42 42 44 45 45 47 49 50 51 51 53 54 54 56 60

ix

2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 3.1

Volume of selected barns built in the thirteenth century Number of horses and mules in selected European countries, about 1845 Fixed plants in four major English naval shipyards, 1688 Gregory King’s estimate of English capital in 1688 Forested area in Europe in about the middle of the nineteenth century Average gross yields per seed for wheat, rye, barley, and oats in selected European countries, 1200–1699 3.2 Average yields per unit of wheat seed in England, 1200–1349 3.3 Mean yield ratios on the estate of the bishopric of Winchester, 1209–1453 3.4 Average yields per unit of wheat seed in selected areas of Italy, 1300–1600 3.5 Quantity of grain sown and harvested and yield ratios in the territory of Siena, 1593–1609 3.6 Deadweight of male cattle in the district of Montaldeo (Italy), seventeenth century 3.7 Livestock losses in Saarburg territory (Germany) during the Thirty Years’ War 5.1 Percentage unmarried in selected social groups in preindustrial Europe 5.2 Average age at first marriage for women in selected social groups and places in preindustrial Europe 5.3 Mortality in selected Italian cities during the plague epidemics of 1630–31 and 1656–57 6.1 Emergence of new industrial applications of the vertical water wheel to c. 1550 7.1 Equivalent of the local monetary unit (lira) in grams of pure silver in four major Italian city states 7.2 Equivalent of the local monetary unit (pound) in grams of pure silver 7.3 Silver outputs from various central European mines 9.1 Kilograms of gold and silver allegedly imported into Spain from the Americas, 1503–1650 9.2 Percentage rise in prices of selected groups of commodities at Pavia (Italy), 1548–80 9.3 Rate of interest and discount rate on bonds of the Bank of St George, Genoa (Italy), 1522–1620 9.4 Analysis of silver and gold received in Batavia from the Netherlands, 1677/78–1684/85 9.5 Exports of the English East India Company to the Far East, 1660–99 9.6 Exports of silver to Asia by the Dutch East India Company, 1602–1795 9.7 Estimated slave imports by importing region, 1451–1700 9.8 Present mini-max estimates of world population, 1650–1900 9.9 Estimates of world population by writers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 10.1 State income and debt in Castile, 1515–1667 10.2 Woollens production in Florence, 1537–1644 10.3 Production of woollen cloth in selected Italian cities, 1600–99 10.4 Exports of silk textiles from Genoa, 1578–1703 10.5 Estimated value of yearly imports into the Low Countries (northern and southern) about the middle of the sixteenth century 10.6 Average yearly English exports of raw wool and woollen cloth, 1361–1500 10.7 Commodity composition of English foreign trade, 1669–1701 10.8 Occupied blast-furnace sites, average furnace output, and total output, England and Wales, 1530– 1709 10.9 Charcoal prices in England, 1530–1699 10.10 Geographical distribution of English foreign trade, 1700–50 10.11 Size of the English merchant navy, 1572–1686

63 64 67 68 72 78 78 78 78 79 80 86 97 98 103 110 135 137 138 165 166 168 169 171 171 175 177 177 187 189 191 191 195 202 205 205 209 212 213

x

A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4

Approximate population of selected European cities, 1300–1700 Rough birth and death rates in selected European cities, 1551–1699 Infant mortality rate in Fiesole (Tuscany), 1621–99 Characteristics of a typical preindustrial population: Sweden, 1778–82

218 219 221 222

PREFACE

The world in which we live and the problems we face cannot be understood without referring to that momentous upheaval known as the Industrial Revolution. Yet the Industrial Revolution was only the final phase, the coherent outcome of a historical development which took place in Europe over the first seven centuries of our now expiring millennium. The purpose of this book is to offer an up-to-date and fully documented summary of the human developments from which our world, with all its blessings and all its woes, eventually emerged. The book is therefore intended for both students and general readers; although focused on social and economic problems, its approach is essentially interdisciplinary. This double ambivalence may help to explain some of its peculiarities. Style and exposition have been kept at a reasonably simple level but no efforts have been spared to provide the reader with precise references, abundant statistical material and a wealth of bibliographical information. Disconcerting technicalities have been eliminated without sacrificing scholarly accuracy. At the same time the logical tools of economic and social analysis have been clearly spelled out rather than taken for granted or hidden away in the tissue of the narrative. This, it is hoped, will help the economics student to trace the connections between economic theory and economic history, while acquainting the layman with some of the basic tools of contemporary social sciences. The book has been organized in two parts. In Part I our analysis is essentially static. It aims to clarify the way in which the society and economy of preindustrial Europe functioned, while emphasizing certain constant characteristics of that society and that economy. Part II illustrates the changes which took place within that framework and which gradually transformed Europe from a primitive, uninteresting and underdeveloped corner of the world, under constant threat from its more powerful neighbors, into a dynamic, highly developed and creative society which came to establish undisputed political, cultural, and economic predominance all over the globe. Quite naturally, the nature of our inquiry is molded by values, mentalities, and beliefs which are peculiar to our own age and society. When another society is under scrutiny, questions which bear little or no relation to the philosophy, values, and beliefs of that society inevitably pose difficulties. It may be that we are interested in the size of the population, the patterns of consumption or the level of production of, let us say, the province of Reims in France at the beginning of this millennium. What the documents relating to that area give us, however, is detailed information on miracles performed by St Gibrian. Because the documentation left by the past reflects the interests and the values of the past, many of the problems raised in the following pages can receive only tentative or approximate answers. The answers become more precise for centuries closer to our own, as people began to ask the same questions that we ask. This new edition has given me the opportunity to include findings not available when this book was first published and to revise material based on the suggestions of readers and reviewers. The principal changes

xii

are in the discussions of demography and agricultural economics and include the introduction of new material on the history of the northern Netherlands and on Italian manufacturing and trading. Professor Marcella Kooy and Miss Alide Kooy translated the original Italian text into English. Mr Robert E.Kehoe carefully edited the book and checked on its progress. All additional material included in this third English edition has been translated by Christopher Woodall. Berkeley, California

Part I A STATIC APPROXIMATION

1 DEMAND

TYPE OF ANALYSIS The functioning of any economic system can be looked at from two points of view, that of demand and that of supply. The two perspectives are intimately linked and reflect the same reality. When one describes them, however, the need to analyze first one and then the other tends arbitrarily to accentuate the distinction between them. POPULATION From the point of view of demand, the first point to consider is population. If there were no people there would be no human wants. And if there were no human wants there would be no demand. The study of population presupposes the collection of demographic data. Venice took censuses of its population as long ago as 1509. In the Grand Duchy of Tuscany censuses covering the whole state were taken in 1552, 1562, 1622, 1632, 1642, and several times thereafter. However, at national levels, reasonably accurate figures about the size as well as the structure of a population are not available before the nineteenth century, with the exception of Scandinavia, for which accurate data are available for the eighteenth century. In Spain a national census was completed in 1789 and was particularly excellent: technically a model of its kind. It found the population of the entire country to number 10,409,879 inhabitants. Other nationwide censuses soon followed: in the United States (1790), in England (1801) and in France (1801) but they were all qualitatively inferior to the Spanish census of 1789. For the period before 1800, demographic historians have tried to overcome the dearth of data by estimating population on the basis of indirect and heterogeneous information from fields as disparate as archaeology, botany, and toponymy, as well as from written records of the most diverse kind, such as inventories of manors, lists of men liable for military service, and accounts of hearth taxes or poll taxes. Table 1.1 shows estimates of total population for the major areas of Europe. Such figures can be taken only as rough approximations. The figures for the columns relating to the eleventh and fourteenth centuries are the product of rough hypotheses. Their margin of error is fairly high, not less than 20 percent and perhaps higher. Although the figures in the last two columns are more reliable, they also must not be taken as precise. More reliable figures are available for selected cities (see Appendix Table A.1), but they too are affected by large margins of error and must be taken only as estimates.

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However rough, all the figures in Table 1.1 do consistently indicate that up until the eighteenth century the population of Europe remained relatively small. For long periods it did not grow at all, and when it did, the rate of increase was always very low. Few cities ever numbered more than one hundred thousand inhabitants (see Appendix Table A.1). Any city of fifty thousand inhabitants or more was considered a metropolis. The preindustrial world remained a world of numerically small societies. If a population does not increase or increases only slightly, in the absence of sizable migratory movements, the reason lies either in low fertility or high mortality or both. In preindustrial Europe fertility varied from period to period and from area to area, so that any generalization must be taken with more than a pinch of salt. Celibacy was always fairly widespread, and when people married they generally did so at a relatively advanced age. These facts tended to reduce fertility; however, prevailing birth rates were still very high, always above the 30-per-thousand level (see Appendix Table A.2). While fertility rarely reached the biological maximum, it was nearer to this maximum than to levels prevailing in developed countries of the twentieth century. If the population of preindustrial Europe remained relatively small, the reason lay less in low fertility than in high mortality. We shall return to this point below, in Chapter 5. Table 1.1 Approximate population of the major European countries, 1000–1700 (in millions)

Balkans Low Countries British Isles Danubian countries France Germany Italy Poland Russia Scandinavian countries Spain and Portugal Switzerland

c. 1000

c.1300

c.1500

c. 1600

c. 1700

— — 2 — 5 3 5 — — — — —

— — 5 — 15 12 10 — — — — 0.8

7 2 5 6 16 13 11 4 10 — 9 0.8

8 3 7 7 18 16 13 5 15 2 11 1.1

8 3 9 9 19 15 13 6 18 3 10 1.2

It is worth distinguishing between normal and catastrophic mortality. The distinction is arbitrary and somewhat artificial, but it has the merit of facilitating description. We can broadly define normal mortality as the mortality prevailing in normal years—that is, years free from calamities like wars, famines, epidemics. As a rule normal mortality was below current fertility. Catastrophic mortality is the mortality of calamitous years and as a rule far exceeded current fertility. In years of normal mortality, the natural balance of the population (namely, the difference between the number of births and the number of deaths) was generally positive. In years of catastrophic mortality, the natural balance of population was always highly negative. Owing to recurrent ravages of catastrophic mortality linked to famines, wars, and plagues, the populations of the various areas of preindustrial Europe were constantly subject to drastic fluctuations which, in their turn, were a source of instability for the economic system severely affecting both supply and demand.

4

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

NEEDS, WANTS, AND EFFECTIVE DEMAND All members of a society have “needs.” The quantity and quality of these needs vary enormously in relation to numerous circumstances. Even those needs which seem most inelastic, like the physiological need for nourishment, vary considerably from person to person according to gender, age, climate, and type of work. In general, one can say that the quantity and quality of a society’s needs depend on: a. population size b. the structure of the population by age, gender, and occupation c. geographical and physical factors d. sociocultural factors The first point requires no comment. As to the second, it seems unnecessary to explain that old people and children do not have exactly the same needs, nor do men and women. As for the third, it should be obvious that a man living in Sweden or Siberia has many needs that are totally different from those of a man living in Sicily or Portugal. The relationship between needs and sociocultural conditions is more subtle. In preindustrial England people were convinced that vegetables “ingender ylle humours and be oftetymes the cause of putrified fevers,” melancholy, and flatulence. As a consequence of these ideas there was little demand for fruit and vegetables and the population lived in a prescorbutic state.1 On the other hand, while many people refused to drink fresh cow’s milk, many well-off adults paid wet nurses for the opportunity to suckle milk directly at their breasts. Old Dr Caius maintained that his character changed according to the character of the wet nurse who breast-fed him. Whether his changes of disposition depended primarily on the quality of the milk or on his own hormonal secretions is not a question which should concern us here. The point is that there was a sustained demand for wet nurses not only to feed infants. Other cultural factors can have an equally determining influence on needs, their nature, and their structure. For centuries Catholics made it a duty to eat fish on Fridays, while the men of the Solomon Islands forbade their women to eat certain types of fish. The Muslim religion forbids its followers to drink wine, while the Catholic religion created in all religious communities a need for wine to celebrate Mass. Extravagant ideas also contributed to the formation of needs held to be indispensable. The Galenic theory of humours created for centuries a widespread need for leeches. These last examples have actually been chosen to prove that economists have good reason for distrusting the word needs. The word implies “lack of substitutes,” and is thus seriously misleading in economic analysis. One must also consider that the line of demarcation between the necessary and the superfluous is difficult to define. While daily bread clearly seems necessary and a trip to the Bahamas superfluous, between bread and a trip to the Bahamas there is a vast number of goods and services whose classification is problematic. Obviously the definition of need cannot be limited to the minimum amount of food required to sustain life. But as soon as the criterion is extended beyond that limit to include other items, it is difficult to say where the line between the necessary and the superfluous should fall. Is one steak per week a need? Or is only one steak a month really necessary? We feel we need bathtubs, central heating, and handkerchiefs, but three hundred years ago in Europe these things were luxuries that no one would have dreamed of describing as needs. Someone once wrote that we regard as necessary what we consume and as superfluous what other people consume. As long as a person is free to demand what he wants, what counts on the market are not real needs but wants. A man may need vitamins but may want cigarettes instead. The distinction is important, not only from the point of view of the individual, but also from the point of view of the society. A society may need more hospitals and more schools, but the members of that society may want more swimming pools, more

DEMAND

5

theaters, or more freeways. There may also be dictators who impose or feed specific wants for military conquest, political prestige, or religious exaltation. For the market, what counts is not the objective need— which in any case no one can define except at minimum levels of subsistence—but the want as it is expressed by both the individual and the society. In practice our wants are unlimited. Unfortunately, both as individuals and as a society, we only have limited resources at our disposal. As a result, we are continually forced to make choices, imposing on our wants an order of priorities that we derive from a battery of economic as well as political, religious, ethical, and social considerations. Wants are one thing, effective demand is another. To count on the market, wants must be backed by purchasing power. A starving individual may want food with excruciating intensity, but if he has no purchasing power to back up his want, the market will simply ignore both him and his want. Only when expressed in terms of purchasing power do wants become effective demand, registered by the market. Since purchasing power depends on income, it follows that, given a certain mass of wants, both private and public, and given a certain scale of priorities, the level and the structure of effective demand are determined by: a. level of income b. the distribution of income (among individuals as well as institutions, and between the public and private sectors)2 c. level and structure of prices INCOME AND ITS DISTRIBUTION The mass of incomes can be divided into three broad categories: a. wages b. profits c. interest and rents These different kinds of income correspond to different ways of participating in the productive process. Income gives individuals as well as institutions the power to express their wants on the market in the form of effective demand. Obviously the person who earns and receives income spends it not only on himself but also on those he supports. In other words, the head of the family, who works and receives a wage, spends it to maintain not only himself or herself but also a spouse, children, and perhaps also an old mother or father. The earner of income, therefore, translates into effective demand not only his own personal wants, but also those of his own dependants. In other words, the income of the “active population” converts to effective demand the wants of the total population (active population plus dependent population). Over the centuries, for the mass of the people, income was represented by wages (and in the agricultural sector by shares of the crops). Up to the Industrial Revolution one can say that, given the low productivity of labor (see below) and other institutional factors, wages were extremely low in relation to prices; that is, real wages were extremely low. Turning this on its head, we can say that current prices of goods were too high for current wages. In practical terms we would be saying the same thing, but we would be emphasizing that the basic problem was scarcity. European society was fundamentally poor, but in every corner of Europe there were gradations of poverty and wealth. There were poor and very poor, and alongside them there were some rich and some very rich.

6

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Among the poorest, the peasants were overrepresented, yet even among them one would have found the very poor, the poor, and the not so poor. Differences were not only clearly visible at single places or within well-defined areas but also broadly across the borders. Early in the seventeenth century, a well-informed English traveler recorded: As for the poore paisant [in France], he fareth very hardly and feedeth most upon bread and fruits, but yet he may comfort himselfe with this, and though his fare be nothing so good as the ploughmans and poore artificers in England, yet it is much better than that of the villano in Italy.3 As to craftsmen, many shared the fate of the seventeenth-century artisans of the parish of Saint-Reim in Bordeaux who, according to the local parson, survived only because they received from time to time the charity of the dames de charité.4 Theartisans of more developed cities like Florence or Nuremberg, however, managed to lead a life which, if not comfortable, was at least not completely wretched. It was not unusual for an artisan in Nuremberg in the sixteenth century to have meat on his table more than once a week.5 Several Florentine artisans were able to put aside small savings or to accumulate dowries for their daughters.6 As always, reality can not be painted in black and white. However, it is undeniable that one of the main characteristics of preindustrial Europe, as with all traditional agricultural societies, was a striking contrast between the abject misery of the mass and the affluence and magnificence of a limited number of very rich people. If with the aid of slides one could display the golden mosaics of the monastery of Monreale (Sicily) alongside the hovel of a Sicilian peasant of the time, no words would be needed to describe the phenomenon. While it is worth keeping this image in mind, one has to go further and supplement that picture with a few measurements. Unfortunately, there is little available data and what there is is not very reliable. According to the fiscal assessments of the time in Florence (Italy) in 1427 and in Lyon (France) in 1545, estimated wealth was distributed as shown in Tables 1.2 and 1.3 respectively. If the assessments were correct, 10 percent of the population controlled more than 50 percent of the wealth assessed. Fiscal documents available for other cities suggest similar conclusions.7 Fiscal assessments are rarely reliable, and those of medieval and Renaissance times are particularly open to doubt. One may turn to other evidence. Frequently, the city authorities inquired about reserves of grain stored in private homes. Bags of grain were difficult to hide, and the quantity of grain stored was a function of the income as well as the size of the family. In a city in Lombardy at the middle of the sixteenth century the distribution of private grain reserves was as shown in Table 1.4. Thus 2 percent of the families held 45 percent of the reserves, while 60 percent held no reserves at all. Table 1.2 Distribution of wealth in Florence (Italy), 1427 Percent of wealth Percent population

Real property

Movables

Bonds

Total wealth

10 30 60 100

53 39 8 100

71 23 6 100

86 13 1 100

68 27 5 100

Source: Herlihy, “Family and Property,” p. 8.

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Table 1.3 Distribution of wealth in Lyon (France), 1545 % Population

% Wealth

10 30 60 100

53 26 21 100

Source: Gascon, Grand commerce, vol. 1, p. 370. Table 1.4 Distribution of grain reserves in Pavia (Italy), 1555 Size of reserves of grain per family

% Families

% Reserves

More than 20 bags Between 2 and 20 bags Up to 2 bags None at all

2 18 20 60 100

45 45 10 — 100

Source: Zanetti, Problemi alimentari, p. 71.

In general it is extremely difficult to evaluate the distortions caused by inaccurate assessments, fiscal evasion, and so forth. Occasionally some individual of the time, on the basis of direct experience, tried to do what we cannot do. If that person was competent and had talent, his conclusions are invaluable. In 1698 Vauban classified the French population as follows: rich: 10 percent fort malaisé (very poor): 50 percent near beggars: 30 percent beggars: 10 percent This estimate was no more than an educated guess.8 Ten years earlier in England a man of genius, Gregory King, made more accurate calculations of national income, trade, and distribution of wealth, putting to good use all the material he had available in addition to his personal observations. The calculations he made are summarized in Table 1.5. If King’s estimates are correct, in the England of 1688 about 5 percent of the population (classes A and B) controlled 28 percent of income, while the lower classes, which made up 62 percent of the population, received 21 percent of income. In Figure 1.1 King’s data are contrasted graphically with income distribution data for England in 1962. Although completely different in nature and origins and therefore hardly comparable, the above five estimates all point to an extremely inequitable distribution of both wealth and income.9 However, they also suggest that, contrary to Pareto’s statement, the distribution of wealth and income was Table 1.5 Distribution of income in England in 1688 according to the calculations of Gregory King Socioeconomic class

Number of families (thousands)

Total income in thousands of % Families % Income pounds sterling

A (temporal and spiritual lords; baronets; knights;

53

9.816

4

23

8

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Socioeconomic class esquires; gentlemen; persons in offices, sciences, and liberal arts) B (merchants and traders by sea) C (freeholders and farmers) D (shopkeepers, tradesmen, artisans, and craftsmen) E (naval and military officers and clergymen) F (common seamen, laboring people and outservants, cottagers and paupers, common soldiers) Total

Number of families (thousands)

Total income in thousands of % Families % Income pounds sterling

10

2.400

1

5

330 100

16.960 4.200

24 7

39 10

19

1.120

2

2

849

9.010

62

21

1.361

43.506

100

100

Source: King, “Natural and Political Observations,” p. 31.

not a constant.10 In his report on Spain at the beginning of the sixteenth century, Francesco Guicciardini noted that “except for a few Grandees of the Kingdom who live with great sumptuousness, one gathers that the others live in great poverty.”11 The tone of this comment suggests that even a contemporary observer could not fail to notice that the distribution of income and wealth varied greatly from country to country. Wealth and income were inequitably distributed everywhere, but in some countries and/ or at certain times they were much more inequitably distributed than in other countries and/or at other times. The fundamental poverty of preindustrial societies and the unequal distribution of wealth and income were reflected in the presence of a considerable number of “poor” and “beggars” (the two terms being then used as synonyms). Alongside the great mass of people who received minimal incomes there was a group of people who, because of lack of employment opportunities, incapacity, ignorance, poor health, or laziness, did not take part in the productive process and therefore did not enjoy any income at all. There is no chronicle or hagiography of medieval or Renaissance Europe which does not mention the beggars. Miniatures and paintings devote a good deal of space to these wretched characters. Travelers and writers make frequent reference to them. In England, as late as 1738, Joshua Gee remarked that notwithstanding we [in England] have so many excellent Laws, great Numbers of sturdy Beggars, loose and vagrant Persons, infest the nation but no place more than the City of London and Parts adjacent. If any person is born with any Defect or Deformity, or maimed by Fire or any other Casualty or by any inveterate Distemper, which renders them miserable objects, their way is open to London where they have free Liberty of showing their nauseous Sights to terrify People and force them to give money to get rid of them.12 In 1601, Fanucci wrote, “In Rome one sees only beggars, and they are so numerous that it is impossible to walk the streets without having them around.” In Venice the beggars were so numerous as to worry the government, and measures were taken not only against the beggars themselves, but also against the boatmen

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Figure 1.1 Income distribution in Great Britain in 1688 and 1962. Source: L.Soltow, “Long-run changes in British income inequality,” p. 20.

who ferried them from the mainland. Such evidence easily creates the impression that the beggars were “many.” But how many? The existence of such a large number of destitute people was so trouble-some that attempts were made to count them—if only to find, as in Florence in 1630 that “the number of poor was greater than had been believed.” As we have already seen, Vauban, estimated that beggars in France at the end of the seventeenth century accounted for about 10 percent of the population. This does not sound far-fetched. A variety of surveys relating to different countries show that the “poor,” the “beggars,” and the “wretched” represented a proportion that normally ranged from 10 to 20 percent of the total population of the cities (see Table 1.6). Poor people gravitated toward the cities because that was where the rich lived and where alms were more readily available. However, even if one examines whole areas and not just the cities, one still finds that the poor accounted for a significant segment of society.

10

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

At the end of the seventeenth century in Alsace, in the Alençon area, of a total population of 410,000 inhabitants, 48,051 were beggars, that is, about 12 percent. In Brittany, of a population of 1,655,000, there were 149,325 beggars, or about 9 percent.13 At the beginning of the eighteenth century the Table 1.6 The poor as percentage of the total population in selected European cities, fifteenth to seventeenth centuries City

Years

% of total population

Louvaina

End of 15th century End of 15th century End of 15th century c. 1550 c. 1610 1621 1766 1780

18 12 20 6 15 11 11 14

Antwerpa Hamburgb Cremonac Cremonac Modenad Sienae Venicef

Sources: a Mols, Introduction, vol. 2, pp. 37–39. b Bücher, Bevölkerung, p. 27. c Meroni, Cremona fedelissima, vol. 2, p. 6. d Basini, L’uomo e il pane, p. 81. e Parenti, La popolazione della Toscana, p. 8. f Beltrami, Storia della popolazione di Venezia, p. 204.

Duke of Savoy could consider himself fortunate that in his states, of a total of 1.5 million inhabitants, only 35,492 or 2.5 percent were classified in the census as beggars.14 In England the percentage of the poor was high enough to preoccupy the English monarchs from Henry VIII onwards, and to provoke specific custodial legislation which has gone down in history under the name of the Poor Laws. Of the end of the seventeenth century, Charles Wilson wrote:15 We need look no further than Gregory King’s statistics for striking evidence of the magnitude of this problem at the end of the seventeenth century. Out of his total population of 5.5 million, 1.3 million— nearly a quarter—are described baldly as “cottagers and paupers.” Another 30,000 were “vagrants or gypsies, thieves, beggars, etc:…” At a conservative estimate, a quarter of the population would be regarded as permanently in a state of poverty and underemployment, if not of total unemployment. This was the chronic condition. But when bouts of economic depression descended, the proportion might rise to something nearer a half of the population. As implied at the end of the above quotation, the number of the poor fluctuated wildly. Most people lived at subsistence level. They had no savings and no social security to help them in distress. If they remained without work, their only hope of survival was charity. We look in vain in the language of the time for the term unemployed. The unemployed were confused with the poor, the poor person was identified with the beggar, and the confusion of the terms reflected the grim reality of the times. In a year of bad harvest or of economic stagnation, the number of destitute people grew conspicuously. We are accustomed to fluctuations in unemployment figures. The people of preindustrial times were inured to drastic fluctuations in the number of beggars. Especially in the cities the number of the poor soared in years of famine because starving peasants fled the depleted countryside and swarmed to the urban centers, where charity was more easily available and hopefully the houses of the wealthy had food in storage. Dr Tadino reported that in

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Milan (Italy) during the famine of 1629 in a few months the number of beggars grew from 3,554 to 9,715.16 Gascon found that in Lyon (France) “in normal years the poor accounted for 6 to 8 percent of the population; in years of famine their number rose to 15 or 20 percent.”17 The fundamental characteristic of the poor was that they had no independent income. If they managed to survive, it was because income was voluntarily transferred to them through charity. Income is generated by

12

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

the participation of labor and capital in the productive process. Income, however, can be transferred as well as earned, and the transfer of income is not necessarily linked with productive activity. In every society there are many different kinds of income (or wealth) transfer. To simplify matters, we can speak of two

DEMAND

13

broad categories: voluntary transfers and compulsory transfers. Charity and gifts are common forms of voluntary transfer of income (or wealth). Taxation is one common form of compulsory transfer. In the contemporary world we are accustomed above all to transfers that take the form of taxes. As a modern economist has bluntly observed, “Charity and gifts are outside the logic of the system.” This, however, was not the case in preindustrial Europe. At that time charity and gifts were very much within “the logic of the system.” Chronicles and documents continually refer to voluntary transfers of income or wealth by princes as well as by the ordinary people. The tradition of charity was strong and the act of charity an everyday affair. Certain events accentuated the phenomenon. When death knocked at the door, people opened their purses more freely, for fear of the devil or for more reasonable sentiments. The chronicler Giovanni Villani relates that in the month of September 1330, one of our citizens died in Florence who had neither a son nor a daughter…and among the other legacies he made, he ordered that all the poor of Florence who begged for alms would be given six pennies each…. And giving to each poor man six pennies, this came to 430 pounds in farthings, and they were in number more than 17,000 persons.18 When Francesco di Marco Datini, the great “Merchant of Prato,” died in 1410, he left 100,000 gold florins to establish a charitable foundation and 1,000 florins to the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence for the construction of an orphanage. In Venice in 1501 the patrician Filippo Dron left rich legacies to the hospitals and other institutions of Venice, as well as a legacy with which to build one hundred small houses to give “for the love of God to the poor sailors.”19 Disasters also served to accentuate the phenomenon of charity. In times of plague or famine, to appease God and the saints or from a natural spirit of solidarity, people donated more freely. In the eight years between the Easter of 1340 and June 1348, the parish of Saint Germain l’Auxerrois in Paris received 78 bequests. Then came the plague and in only eight months bequests reached the record figure of 419.20 During the same plague of 1348 the hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence received donations totalling 25,000 gold florins, and the Compagnia della Misericordia received bequests worth 35,000 gold florins.21 The donors did not come only from the ranks of the rich. An antiquarian who patiently compiled the list of benefactors of the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence noted that “the list shows that every social class can boast generous souls full of charity for their brothers,” among the donors one finds “the humble maidservant” leaving the few florins she has accumulated with the sweat and savings of many years, as well as powerful and rich citizens, owners of large estates, like Giovanni Pico della Mirandola.22 Apart from private largesse, there were the donations of princes and public administrations. In the plague epidemic of 1580 the Commune of Genoa spent, taking charity and health expenditure together, about 200, 000 ecus.23 Very often food, and occasionally articles of clothing, were given to the poor. Henry III of England had a mania for distributing footwear. Feasts were also suitable occasions for charity. In Venice the Doges made large donations to the poor at election time; in 1618, Antonio Priuli distributed two thousand ducats in small coins and a hundred in gold coins. In Rome at the election of a pope and subsequent anniversaries, a half giulio was given to anyone who came to ask for it and the gift increased for each child; pregnant women counted as two. People lent or hired each other their children, and pillows multiplied the pregnancies. The more opportunistic managed to present themselves more than once and to collect a good amount of money.24

14

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

In Venice, epidemics and famines in 1528 and 1576 caused the state to levy general poor-rates, hence on those occasions the poor were helped not by voluntary acts of charity but by compulsory transfer payments levied by public authorities.25 In England, the Elizabethan administrators and their seventeenth- and eighteenth-century successors repeatedly tried to enact a system of public relief based on the levy of poor-rates on the propertied classes.26 No matter how commendable and modern in their conception, however, these efforts remained isolated and their effectiveness limited: even in Venice and in England, private philanthropy continued to play by far the major role in alleviating the dire poverty of a large segment of society. The preceding observations are interesting, but they still leave the basic macroeconomic question unanswered: what order of magnitude did charity represent in relation to income? Various family budgets of the rich and the well-off in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries show “ordinary charity” in the order of 1 to 5 percent of consumption expenditure, but, in addition to these gifts private individuals left to charity part of their wealth at death. Business enterprises regularly gave to charity; in the books of the Florentine mercantile companies, charity outlays are normally recorded in a special account under the heading “conto di messer Domineddio” (literally, “account of Milord God”). Much of the “charity,” however, was actually a transfer of wealth to the Church.27 In its turn, the Church gave to the poor only a very small part of what it received. Churches in our own time still spend much more on new construction and on congregational expenses than on charity.28 At the end of the Middle Ages, in normal times, the immensely rich English monasteries gave less than 3 percent of their income to the poor.29 In fact, documents show that the monks sometimes embezzled money which had been left to them as charity trustees.30 However, if one adds together charity from private individuals and companies, from the public powers, and from the Church, one is led to believe that transfer payments to the poor must have amounted to much more than 1 percent of the gross national product. (According to Kohler, in the United States, in about 1970, voluntary interfamily transfer involved altogether only “a tiny fraction of one percent of GNP”.) The part played by charity in satisfying the wants of a large segment of the population is indicated not only by the amount of funds involved but also by the broad spectrum of wants to which the said funds were destined. During the five-year period between 1561 and 1565, the Scuola di San Rocco at Venice—a religious society for the laity—dispensed charity to the tune of 13,027 ducats, the equivalent of 70,290 days’ wages of a worker. This broke down as follows:31 58 percent in alms 23 percent to provide dowries to poor girls 15 percent to hospitals 4 percent in medicinals Until recent times hospitals, houses for abandoned children, and foundations for the distribution of dowries to poor girls operated in Europe with the income accumulated over the years from private donations. Also, schools were often subsidized by private donations and, especially in Protestant countries, after the Reformation, charity was increasingly directed to the instruction of the poor in useful skills.32 The gift is, like charity, a transfer of income or of wealth, but its motivation is not (or not necessarily) the poverty of the recipient. Like charity, the gift has not completely disappeared in industrial societies, but its economic importance has decreased considerably: all commodities and services have a price, and buying with money on the market is by far the most common way to acquire desired commodities and services. In

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preindustrial Europe the situation was different and the further back one goes, the more important the role of the gift becomes in the system of exchanges. Often the motive behind the gift was not generosity, but either the compulsion to show off the donor’s social status or the expectation of receiving in exchange another gift or the favors of someone in power. Traces of this tradition recur in industrial societies on the occasion of events like weddings or holidays like Christmas. Gifts and charity do not exhaust the possible forms of voluntary transfers of wealth. In preindustrial Europe dowries and gambling had considerable importance. Although such transfers had no connection with productive activity, they could nevertheless affect it. As in all underdeveloped societies, people thought of dowries and of gambling as means of financing business. Goro di Stagio Dati, for example, recorded: On 31 March 1393, I was betrothed to Betta, the daughter of Mari di Lorenzo Vilanuzzi and on Easter Monday, 7 April, I gave her the ring … I received a payment of 800 gold florins from the Bank of Giacomino di Goggio and Company. This was part of the dowry. I invested in the shop of Buonaccorso Berardi and his partners. Betta died in October 1402. In the trading accounts of 1403, Goro recorded: When the partnership with Michele di Ser Parente expired, I set up a shop on my own…. My partners are Piero and Jacopo di Tommaso Lana who contribute 3,000 florins while I contribute 2,000. This is how I propose to raise them: 1,370 florins are still due to me from my old partnership with Michele di Ser Parente. The rest I expect to obtain if I marry again this year, when I hope to find a woman with a dowry as large as God be pleased to grant me.33 Buonaccorso Pitti tells in his Cronica how gambling brought him the necessary capital for (quite literally) some horse-trading: they began to play and I with them and at the end I brought home from this twenty golden florins in winnings. The next day I returned and I won about eleven florins and so for about fifteen days, so that I won about twelve hundred florins. And having Michele Marucci continually in my ears begging me not to play again, and saying, “Buy some horses and go to Florence.” I, in fact, listened to his advice and I bought six good horses.”34 So far we have discussed voluntary transfers of income and/or wealth, but as mentioned above there were also compulsory transfers. When we think of compulsory transfers we think mostly of taxation, but plundering raids, highway robbery, and theft in the narrow sense belong to the same category. In medieval Europe some political theorists saw only a fine line between taxation and robbery. As for distinctions between war, plunder, and robbery, they were very tenuous indeed. There is a curious clause in the laws of the Ine of Wessex which seeks to define the various types of forcible attack to which a householder and his property might be subjected: if fewer than seven men are involved, they are thieves; if between seven and thirty-five, they form a gang; if more than thirty-five, they are a military expedition.35 The relative importance of taxation on the one hand and plunder and theft on the other cannot be quantitatively assessed, but there is no doubt that the earlier the period in question the greater the importance of plunder and theft relative to taxation. We shall discuss below the incidence of taxation in preindustrial Europe. Here it is worth devoting a few words to plunder and theft. Much has been written about theft from the legal and judicial points of view, but

16

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

little from the statistical. We know, however, that it was a very frequent event—which is not surprising if one considers the great proportion of poor in the total population, the inequality in income distribution, the frequency of famine, and the limited capacity of preindustrial powers to control people and their movements. All this helps to explain the frequency of theft and robbery on the part of common and lowclass people. However, the noble and the wealthy also did their share, especially in the earlier centuries of the Middle Ages. In 1150 the Abbey of St Victor of Marseille complained to Raymond Beranger, Count of Barcelona and Marquis of Provence, that Guillaume de Signes and his sons had stolen over the years 5,600 sheep and goats, 200 oxen, 200 pigs, 100 horses, donkeys and mules from the various possessions of the abbey. In 1314 a great quantity of timber was stolen from a royal possession in the Craus valley (HauteProvence, France). An inquiry showed that the robbery had been perpetrated by the men of the Count of Beuil, under his orders: the count traded in timber.36 As for war-plunder, one may mention that at the beginning of the fifteenth century the sire d’Albret admitted to a Breton knight that “Dieu mercy” war paid him and his men well, but that it had paid still better when he fought on the side of the King of England, because then “riding à l’aventure,” he could often “get his hands on the rich traders of Toulouse, Condon, La Réole or Bergerac.”37 The leader of the lansquenets, Sebastian Schertlin, who fought in Italy from 1526 to 1529 and took part in the sack of Rome, returned to Germany with a booty of money, jewels, and clothing valued at approximately 15,000 florins. A few years later, the good Sebastian bought himself an estate which included a country house, furniture, and cattle at a price of 17,000 florins. Among the Swedish commanders who participated in the Thirty Years’ War, Kraft von Hohenlohe amassed war spoils of about 117,000 thalers, Colonel A.Ramsay about 900,000 thalers in cash and valuables, and Johan G.Baner, a fortune estimated at something between 200,000 and a million thalers which he deposited in the bank of Hamburg.38 Ransom is one form of plunder. We are best informed on large-scale ransoms paid by princes and high dignitaries for their release. When Isaac Comnenus, duke of Antioch, was captured by the Seljuqs in the reign of Michael VII, the sum of 20,000 gold besants had to be paid for his release.39 In 1530 King Francis I of France had to pay the enormous ransom of 1.2 million gold ducats to Emperor Charles V for the liberation of his two children.40 Individuals of lesser importance were worth a great deal less. But the total amount of ransoms paid by travelers captured by pirates, soldiers and citizens captured in war, and towns captured by the enemy, represented at all times a continuous large transfer of wealth. We have absolutely no way to measure the relative importance of unilateral transfers (including charity, gifts and dowries, as well as plunder, ransom, and theft) on the one hand and exchanges on the other. But it appears that the earlier the period under examination, the greater is the relative importance of transfers compared to that of exchanges. Indeed, for the Dark Ages Grierson has asserted that “the alternatives to trade (gift and theft) were more important than trade itself.”41 Another authority has aptly observed, “Savage society was dominated by the habit of plundering and the need for giving. To rob and to give: these two complementary acts covered a very large portion of exchanges.”42 Such was the logic, as it were, of that system. As there was as yet little trade (whether in the form of barter or involving money), weekly markets or fairs were more than able to satisfy the needs of the population. These weekly markets were held in the vicinity of the manorhouse or the abbey or in a village. In some localities, particularly blessed by geographical or political conditions, there developed monthly or yearly fairs in addition to the weekly market. On such occasions people would come from further afield and sometimes merchants arrived bearing exotic goods. As time progressed and civilization developed, after the end of the tenth century, trade expanded and began quite naturally to concentrate in the cities that were then developing partly as a cause and partly as an

DEMAND

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effect of the growth in trade. As the division of labour proceeded, people in the cities became increasingly less self-sufficient and more and more dependent on trade. To contemporaries, cities therefore looked like permanent fairs. This was beautifully expressed by the troubadour Chretien de Troyes at the end of the twelfth century: Et l’on eut pu dire et croire Qu’en ville ce fu toujours foire (And one might have said and believed/That in town there was always a fair). The system therefore changed slowly but the world where trade predominates and unilateral transfers are reduced to a minimum only emerged in the last few centuries. The transfer of income or wealth, whether voluntary or compulsory, entails redistribution. In general, charity works in favor of a more equal distribution. Through charity, income or wealth is transferred from the rich to the poor. In Europe, however, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, every donation to the Church was regarded as charity. To the extent to which charity to the Church was kept by the Church and not redistributed among the poor, it favored the concentration of wealth (in this case in the hands of the Church) rather than a more equitable distribution of it. Similarly, taxation could be ambivalent. Inasmuch as tax revenues were used to maintain hospitals, to pay communal teachers or community doctors, or to finance free distributions of food, taxation meant a more equitable distribution of income. If, however, taxation was used to concentrate a larger share of available resources in the hands of the prince, the imbalance in the distribution of wealth was made worse, especially when the burden of taxation fell proportionately more heavily on the lower orders. TYPES OF DEMAND Total effective demand can be divided into a. demand for consumption goods b. demand for services c. demand for capital goods This division intersects with another, inasmuch as demand can also be divided into a. private internal demand b. public internal demand c. foreign demand Each section a, b, c, can be subdivided into subsections 1, 2, and 3 and vice versa. PRIVATE DEMAND Let us begin with internal demand for consumer goods and services in the private sector. The lower the disposable income is, the higher the proportion spent on food. The reason for this phenomenon—in technical terms—is that the demand for food has an income elasticity lower than unity. It sounds

18

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

forbidding, but all it means is that people cannot easily cut down on food expenditure when their income diminishes, and they cannot expand their food intake beyond a certain point when their income grows.43 In 1950 expenditures on food made up 22 percent of total consumption expenditure in the United States, 31 percent in the United Kingdom and 46 percent in Italy. Clearly, the poorer the country the greater the proportion of available income its inhabitants have to spend on food. An analogous argument applies to the relation between expenditure on bread and total expenditure for nourishment. The lower the income, the higher will be the percentage spent on “poor” items such as bread and other starchy foods.44 In sixteenth-century Lombardy a meinorial on the cost of labor and the cost of living stressed that: the peasants live on wheat, …and it seems to us that we can disregard their other expenses because it is the shortage of wheat that induces the laborers to raise their claims; their expenses for clothing and other needs are practically non-existent.45 Peasants were relegated to the lowest income groups in preindustrial Europe. The mass of the urban population was better off, but whenever extant documents allow some tentative estimates on the structure of expenditure, one generally finds that, in normal years, even in the towns, 60 to 80 percent of the expenditure of the mass of the population went on food (see Table 1.7). Though ordinary people spent about 60 to 80 percent of their income on food, this does not mean that they ate and drank well and plentifully. On the contrary, the masses ate little and poorly, but the average man’s income was so low that even a poor diet swallowed up 60 to 80 percent of that income—this in good times. Untroubled years, however, were not the norm in preindustrial Europe. Plants were not selected, people did not know how to fight pests, fertilizers were scarce. As a result, crop failures were exceedingly frequent. In addition, a relatively primitive system of transportation made any long-distance supply of foodstuffs impossible, unless by sea. Consequently, the prices of foodstuffs fluctuated wildly, reflecting both the inelasticity of demand and man’s limited control over the adverse forces of nature. Between 1396 and 1596, in a port such as Antwerp, easily supplied by sea, the price of rye registered yearly increases of the order of 100–200 percent in eleven years and in nine other years made yearly jumps of more than 200 percent.46 As has been observed, “the buying power of the working classes depended essentially on climatic conditions.”47 When there was a poor harvest and prices of foodstuffs soared, even the expenditure of 100 percent of a worker’s income could hardly feed him and his family. Then there was famine, and people died of hunger. The lower orders lived in a chronic state of undernourishment and under the constant threat of starvation. This explains the symbolic value that food acquired in preindustrial Europe. One of the traits which distinguished the Table 1.7 Estimated breakdown of private expenditure of the mass of the population in selected areas, fifteenth to eighteenth centuries Percent of expenditure

Food

England (15th century)

Lyon, France (c. 1550)

Antwerp— Holland Northern Low (middle 17th France Countries century) (before (1596–1600) 1700)

≈80

≈80

≈79

≈60

≈80

Milan, Italy England— (about 1600) nonagricultural labor (1794) 74

DEMAND

19

Percent of expenditure

Bread (percent of food) Clothing and textiles Heating, light, and rent Various

England (15th century)

Lyon, France (c. 1550)

Antwerp— Holland Northern Low (middle 17th France Countries century) (before (1596–1600) 1700)

Milan, Italy England— (about 1600) nonagricultural labor (1794)

(≈20)

(≈50)

(≈49)

(≈25)

(≈30)

≈5

≈10

≈12

5

≈15

≈11

≈8

11

≈8

10

Sources: Phelps Brown and Hopkins, “Wage-rates and Prices,” p. 293; Phelps Brown and Hopkins, “Seven Centuries of Building Wages,” p. 180; Gascon, Grand commerce, vol. 2, p. 544; Schollier, De Levensstandard in de 15 en 16 Eeuw te Antwerpen, p. 174; Eden, The State of the Poor; Posthumus, Geschiedenis der Leidsche Lakenindustrie.

A Country Wedding. A painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, about 1565. In this glimpse of peasant life a wedding takes place in a barn sparsely furnished with rough stick furniture and crude clay blowls, and jugs. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

rich from the poor was that the rich could eat their fill. The banquet was what distinguished a festive occasion—a village fair, a wedding—from the daily routine. The generous offer of food was the sign of hospitality as well as a token of respect: university students had to give a lavish dinner for their professors on the day of their graduation; a visiting prince or a foreign emissary was always greeted with sumptuous banquets. On these occasions, as a reaction to the hunger that everyone feared and saw on the emaciated faces of the populace, people indulged in pantagruelic excesses. The degree of hospitality, the importance

20

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

of a feast, the respect toward a superior—all were measured in terms of the abundance of the fare and of the gastronomic excesses which resulted from it. Having bought their food, the mass of the people had little left for their wants, no matter how elementary they were. In preindustrial Europe, the purchase of a garment or of the cloth for a garment remained a luxury the common people could only afford a few times in their lives. One of the main preoccupations of hospital administration was to ensure that the clothes of the deceased “should not be usurped but should be given to lawful inheritors.”48 During epidemics of plague, the town authorities had to struggle to confiscate the clothes of the dead and to burn them: people waited for others to die so as to take over their clothes— which generally had the effect of spreading the epidemic. In Prato (Tuscany) during the plague of 1631 a surgeon lived and served in the pest house for about eight months lancing bubos and treating sores, catching the plague and recovering from it. He wore the same clothing throughout. In the end, he petitioned the town authorities for a gratuity with which to buy himself new apparel: it cost fifteen ducats, which was as much as his monthly salary.49 Among the ordinary people, lucky was he who had a decent coat to wear on the holy days. Peasants were always clothed in rags. All this led to a status symbolization process. As Louis IX of France used to say, “It is just right that a man should dress according to his station.” Since the price of cloth was high in relation to current incomes, the very “length of the coat depended to a large extent on social position.”50 Nobles and rich men were noticeable because they could afford long garments. In order to save, the common people wore garments which reached only to their knees. As the length of the coat acquired symbolic value it became institutionalized. In Paris, surgeons were divided into two groups, the highly trained surgeons, who had the right to wear long tunics, and the low-class barber-surgeons, who did not have the right to wear a tunic below the knee. Having spent most of their income on food and clothing, the lower orders had little left to spend on rent and heating. In the large towns rents were exceedingly high in relation to wages. In Venice in the second half of the seventeenth century, the rent for one or two miserable rooms amounted to more than 12 percent of the wage of a skilled worker.51 Thus housing often consisted of a hovel shared by many, a condition that favored the spread of germs in times of epidemics. Commenting on the high death rates which prevailed among the lower classes during the plague of 1631 in Florence, Rondinelli recorded that when the counting of the population took place, it was found that 72 people lived crowded together in an old ugly tower in the courtyard of de’ Donati, 94 were crowded in a house on Via dell’ Acqua and about 100 in a house on Via San Zanobi. If by mischance only one had fallen prey to the disease, all would probably have been infected.52 The physician G.F.Fiochetto, in his report on the 1630 epidemic in Turin, recorded that one of the first cases of infection was that of Francesco Lupo, shoemaker, who stayed in a house “where sixty-five people, men and women, all artisans, were living.”53 In Milan during the plague epidemic of 1576, in the poorer sections of the city 1,563 homes were regarded as infected. In these homes containing 8,956 rooms lived 4,066 families.54 This gives an average of six rooms per house and two rooms per family. The Milanese Public Health Board issued an ordinance in 1597 to the effect that no matter how poor and how low their status, people are not allowed to keep more than two beds in one room and no more than two or three people should sleep in one bed. Those who claim that they have rooms large enough to contain conveniently more than two beds, must notify the Health Board which will send an inspector to check.55

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This was wise, but poverty stood in the way of wisdom. When the plague hit Milan in 1630, a clergyman reported that the poor are worst hit by the plague because of the confined living conditions in houses vulgarly called stables, where every room is filled with large families and where stench and contagion prevail.56 In Genoa, during the epidemic of 1656–57 a nun reported that a very great number of poor people live in crowded conditions. There are ten to twelve families per house and most frequently one finds eight or more people sharing one room and having neither water nor any other facility available.57 Of course not all laborers lived in such appalling conditions. As already noted, there were differences within the lower orders. Also, in the smaller centers the situation was not as bad as in the larger cities. In the small town of Prato in 1630 there were on average three to four persons per house, and rarely more than five or six.58 In the countryside, however, most peasants lived in crowded conditions very similar to those prevailing in the poorest quarters of the larger cities. As life at home was so unpleasant, whenever possible the men moved to the tavern. As indicated above, the well-off and the rich ate adequately. In fact, in reaction to the hunger that surrounded them, they ate too much, as a result of which they suffered from gout and had to have recourse to the barber-surgeons for frequent blood-letting. The estimate of the food consumption in the homes of the rich is complicated by the continuous presence of domestic staff and the frequent presence of guests. A further difficulty in estimating food consumption is the fact that the rich and the well-off were usually land owners: at least part of the food they consumed was grown on their lands and often does not appear in their bookkeeping. Precise calculations are often impossible, but on the basis of existing family accounts one can hazard rough estimates. For the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, one is inclined to believe that the rich spent 15 to 35 percent of their total consumption on food and the well-to-do 35 to 50 percent (see Table 1.8a). These percentages, however, are not comparable to the 70 to 80 percent that has been calculated for the budget of the lower orders. Whereas for the bulk of the population income and consumption practically coincided (saving being a negligible amount), in the case of the rich income far outstripped consumption by an amount difficult to define and which, in any case, would have little meaning in terms of averages. Table 1.8a Structure of expenditure on consumer goods and services of three families of middle-class and princely rank in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries % of expenditure

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Food1 Clothing Housing Subtotal: a+b+c Wages of servants

I (Well-to-do middle class)

II (Wealthy middle class)

III (Princely)

47 19 11 [77] 1

36 27 3 [66]

34 8 27 [69] 10

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BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

% of expenditure

(e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j)

Hygiene and medicines Entertainment Purchases of jewelry and works of art Taxes Charities Various

I (Well-to-do middle class)

II (Wealthy middle class)

III (Princely)

2

1

3

6 2.5

5 27

1 0.5 10

1

Exempt 6 12

Sources: I—Expenses of the notary Folognino of Verona in 1653–57 from Tagliaferri, Consumi di una famiglia borghese del Seicento. II—Expenses of the middle-class burgher Williband Imhof of Nuremberg, about 1560, from Strauss, Nuremberg, p. 207. III—Expenses of the Odescalchi family in 1576–77, from Mira, Vicende economiche di una famiglia italiana, Chapter 5. 1 In the expense accounts of the noble English families of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries collected by L.Stone, food accounted for 10 to 25 percent of consumption expenditure. Expense on food of the wealthy Cornelis de Jonge van Ellemeet of Amsterdam, at the end of the seventeenth century, amounted to about 35 percent of total annual expenditure (excluding taxes). Account must be taken of the fact that for the well-to-do, expenditure on food included food for the servants and that abundantly offered to many guests.

When compared to total income rather than to consumption, expenditure on food by the rich and well-todo would thus represent a lower percentage than the 15 to 35 percent mentioned above. The same psychological force that induced the rich to overeat drove them to excessive display in their dress. Public authorities had to intervene with sumptuary laws to restrain wealthy citizens from overostentation and prevent them from squandering wealth on conspicuous clothing. The acquisition of jewelry was partly exhibitionism, but also a form of hoarding. Expenditure on clothes and jewelry, however, could often not be separated, and one can conjecture that in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries this type of expenditure absorbed, depending on circumstances, from 10 to 30 percent of consumption of the rich and the well-to-do (see Table 1.8a). At the end of the fifteenth century, the expenditure of the king of France on Table 1.8b Some examples of expenditure by aristocratic and institutional consumers in England Thomas de Berkeley 1345–46 Food Food and bedding of horses Horses and falcons Clothing Household cloth and silver Wax

Sir Gilbert Talbot 1417–18 £742

(57%)

£148 £ 26 £142

(11%) (2%) (11%)

£ 45 £ 22

(3%) (2%)

Food Food and purchase of horses Wax and candles Fees and wages Cloth Travel Letters

£176

(71%)

£ 16 £1 £ 22 £ 20 £3 £6

(7%) (0%) (9%) (8%) (1%) (2%)

DEMAND

Thomas de Berkeley 1345–46

Sir Gilbert Talbot 1417–18

Legal expenses Pensions & gifts to relatives Building Miscellaneous (including alms, boots, shoes, wages etc.)

£ 11

(1%)

Miscellaneous

£ 65 £ 21

(5%) (2%)

Total £248 (100%) St John’s Hospital Cambridge 1484–85

£ 86

(6%)

Food Wages

£32 £13 Rent Buildings Fuel

(45%) (18%) £2 £12 £5

(3%) (17%) (7%)

Wax Miscellaneous Total

£1 £6 £72

(1%) (8%) (100%)

Total John Catesby 1392–93 Clothing Food Horses Payments to servants Clothing Building Agriculture Education Kitchen equipment Rents Tithes and taxes Miscellaneous (including alms and entertainment) £2 Total

23

£1308

(100%)

£1 £13 £1 £15 £18 £14 £17 £2 £2 £23 £3

(1%) (12%) (1%) (13%) (16%) (13%) (15%) (2%) (2%) (21%) (3%)

(2%) £110

Robes (100%)

£4

(2%)

An esquire 1471–72 Food and fuel £24 Clothes and alms £4 Buildings £5 Horses, food for horses £ 5 Servants’ wages £9 £3 (6%) Total £50

(48%) (8%) (10%) (10%) (18%) (100%)

Source: Dyer, Standards of Living, p. 70.

jewelry and clothing amounted to no less than 5 to 10 percent of all royal revenues.59 Then there was household expenditure on heating, candles, furniture, gardening, and so on. When a person overspent on one category he naturally saved on another. On the whole, food, clothing, and household expenses usually involved a good 60 to 80 percent of the expenditure on current consumption of the rich and the well-to-do. The combination of pronounced inequality of income distribution and a low level of real wages favored the demand for domestic services. This demand was highly elastic in relation to income as the number of servants was a symbol of opulence. Even at the end of the eighteenth century, a girl like Mary Berry, who belonged to a well-off but not very rich English family, in planning with her fiancé the balance sheet of their future household, came to the conclusion that provision had to be made to cover “the wages of four women servants—a housekeeper, a cook under her, a housemaid and a lady’s maid—three men servants and the coachman.”60 As we shall see later, the number of servants in relation to population was very high and, of course, domestics were concentrated in the houses of the rich and the well-to-do (see Table 2.9). Nevertheless,

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given the low average level of wages, servants’ pay did not generally represent more than 1 to 2 percent of the consumption expenditure of moneyed families, although in exceptional cases it could reach 10 percent. One should add, however, that the money wages actually paid to servants did not represent the total effective expenditure on them. In order to evaluate this expenditure, one should take into account the costs of food, lodging, heating, and other items provided for servants by their employers. Toward the end of the seventeenth century, the very wealthy Cornelis de Jonge van Ellemeet of Amsterdam spent about forty florins a year to clothe each one of his ten servants. In addition Van Ellemeet spent on each servant about seventeen florins for meat, eighteen florins for butter, and unspecified amounts for drinks, heating, accommodation, and other facilities. The average individual wage of the servants was some seventy florins a year.61 Clearly wages represented only a minor part of expenditure on servants. The situation was not appreciably different in the homes of the less wealthy. If the maid of the Florentine craftsman Bartolomeo Masi was able to save fourteen florins in five years, it was because her food, accommodation, and probably some clothing were provided by her employer’s family. It would be a serious mistake to believe that the demand for services by the wealthy classes was limited to the demand for domestic servants. The variety of service personnel in demand included lawyers and notaries; teachers for children; persons performing religious ministrations; various workers and artists who maintained and embellished the living quarters; in the case of the nobility, various types of entertainers, such as musicians, poets, dwarfs and jesters, falconers, and stable boys; and last, but not least, doctors, in connection with which, early in the eighteenth century, the famous physician, Dr Bernardino Ramazzini, commented, If the laborer does not recover rapidly he returns to the workshop still ailing and he neglects the doctor’s prescriptions, if they stretch over a long period. Certain things can only be done for the rich who can afford to be ill.62 The consumption of the wealthy, even when it had overtones of extravagance, never showed much variety. The economic system and the state of the arts did not offer the consumer the great variety of products and services which characterize industrial societies. Food, clothing, and housing were by far the major items of expenditure of the rich. The difference between the rich and the poor was that the rich spent extravagantly on all three items, while the poor often did not have enough to buy food. Moreover, the mass of the populace had no opportunity to save, while the rich, although indulging in conspicuous consumption, did. Not all income received is necessarily spent on consumer goods and services. Income not spent on such goods and services is naturally saved: this self-evident proposition derives from the definition of saving. Another self-evident proposition is that neither all individuals nor all societies save to the same extent. Saving is a function of a. psychological and sociocultural factors b. the level of income c. income distribution There is no need to expend many words to illustrate point (a). It is obvious that some individuals are more inclined to spend while others are more inclined to save. It is worth mentioning, however, that on a macroeconomic level, sociocultural factors powerfully influence people’s propensity to consume or, conversely, to save. Even in the absence of organized publicity, factors such as fashion, emulation, ostentation, or the prevailing conditions of security or insecurity affect the amount of current income spent

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on consumption. About point (b) it is obvious that when income is high there are possibilities of saving that do not exist when income is low. This is true for individuals as well as for societies. In the long run the relationship between income and consumption is not as stable as in the short run: changes in institutions, morals, and fashions greatly affect the so-called “consumption function.” Still, again in the long run, it remains true that the lower the income, the slighter the possibility for saving—and vice versa. In Turin in 1630, when because of the plague all the people were quarantined within their houses, the Town Council noted that the bulk of the workers “lived from day to day,”63 thatis, they had no savings to fall back on and therefore, when restricted to their houses, had to be subsidized by the city. As we have repeatedly pointed out, however, even among the lower orders there were gradations of poverty, and if there were those who “lived from day to day,” there were also those who, by tightening their belts and limiting their wants, managed to set aside a few coins. If for the majority the saving of small sums implied heroic sacrifice, income for some was sufficiently high easily to allow a substantial accumulation of wealth. According to Hilton, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries in certain years, the Dukes of Cornwall succeeded in saving and investing up to 50 percent of their income. In 1575–78, in Rome, the princely Odescalchi family, which enjoyed a very high standard of living, spent, on average, some three thousand lire of the time annually on current consumption. A remarkable figure, but the family’s average income was about thirteen thousand lire, out of which a saving of ten thousand lire per annum was possible—that is, 80 percent of their income.64 In the second half of the sixteenth century Ambrogio di Negro, a banker in Genoa and doge of the same city during the years 1585–87, managed to save and invest on average more than 70 percent of his annual income, in spite of his high and costly standard of living. In the early decades of the seventeenth century the Riccardi family of Florence saved and invested about 75 percent of its annual income. Cornelis de Jonge van Ellemeet, one of the five or six richest people in Amsterdam at the end of the seventeenth century, saved, on average, from 50 to 70 percent of his annual income.65 In a predominantly poor society lacking corrective means (taxation and/or rationing), a high concentration of wealth is an indispensable condition to the formation of saving. Let us refer briefly to Gregory King’s estimates for England in 1688. The reliability of the figures themselves is irrelevant to the matter under discussion. Even if they were pure invention, they would still serve as a hypothetical example. The total annual income of England was estimated at £43.5 million. The fact that 28 percent of this income was concentrated in the hands of only 5 percent of families (see above, Table 1.5) meant that these families had an average annual income of £185 and therefore a distinct possibility of saving. In fact, Gregory King estimated that these families saved 13 percent of their annual income. Their total saving of £1.3 million represented 72 percent of national saving (£1.8 million). If the national income of £43.5 million had been subdivided in a perfectly egalitarian way among the 1.36 million families which made up the English population, each family would have received an income of £32. At that level, no family would have been in a position to save, and national saving would have been reduced practically to zero. According to Gregory King, national saving in England at the end of the seventeenth century amounted to less than 5 percent of national income. England at this time was one of the richest preindustrial societies that ever existed, but it was not characterized by a particularly high concentration of income; quite the contrary. A poorer economy with a higher concentration of income could have saved well above the 5percent level.66 Imposing cathedrals, splendid abbeys, sumptuous residences, and huge fortifications are there to testify that a sizable surplus must have been available for substantial investments. The generally low level of incomes impeded the accumulation of savings, but the concentration of income facilitated it. The proportion of income saved was the result of these two opposing forces. Taking all factors into consideration, one can

26

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

assume that, according to locally prevailing conditions, European preindustrial societies could in “normal” years save between 2 and 15 percent of income. An industrial society in “normal” years saves from 3 to 20 percent of its income. The substantial difference, however, is that an industrial society can attain such levels of saving while still providing the masses with a high level of consumption, while the preindustrial societies were in a position to save only if they succeeded in imposing miserably low standards of living on a large proportion of the population. Moreover, “normal” years are the standard for industrial societies, but the word “normal” acquires an ironic flavor when applied to preindustrial Europe. In those days life was hard: tears followed laughter, tragedies followed feasts with great frequency and intensity. The violent fluctuations in human mortality were a reflection on this general variability. Years of fat cattle, during which it was possible to save, were followed by years of lean cattle, during which saving took on negative value. Averaging would make little sense, because it would cancel out one of the main characteristics of the period, namely, the violent contrasts from one year to the next. Income is spent on the acquisition of goods and services. In turn, expenditure creates new income in the form of wages, profits, interest, and rents. Thus the flow of monetary income becomes circular. The flow, however, has a critical point at which various mechanisms must insure its continuity. The mechanisms in question must insure that the monetary income which is not spent on consumption will not lay idle but will instead be borrowed by people who will spend it on capital goods—in other words, that saving will be converted into investment. If the money saved or part of it remains unspent, the volume of the flow is correspondingly reduced and the economy becomes subjected to deflationary pressures. If the process continues, the contraction of the flow can actually reach a level at which no further saving is possible. In a modern economy monetary savings reach the money market and the main problem is to ensure that there are enough people and/or institutions willing to borrow it for investment purposes. In preindustrial Europe, however, large amounts of monetary savings were often hoarded, that is, they did not reach the financial market (which existed only in primitive forms) and remained idle under mattresses or in pots or strong boxes. The trap of hoarding was, in fact, very effective. Archeological evidence in this regard is overwhelming. It is enough to open at random a journal of numismatics and one encounters an endless list of hoards discovered accidentally. Take for example the 1962 issue of the French Revue numismatique; it reported the following findings which had come to notice that year: early in 1954, at Courcelles-Frémoy, while repairing a well a mason found a copper vase containing more than 13,000 coins dating from the thirteenth century, an equivalent of approximately 13 kilograms of silver; in January 1960, during the demolition of the church of St Hilaire at Poitiers, workers found a bag containing more than 490 gold coins of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, each coin weighing approximately 3.5 grams; at Easter 1960, while leveling the border of a country road, a worker discovered a pot containing 280 coins of vellon, dating from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; early in 1961, while demolishing a wall at a farm in Chappes, a farmer uncovered a pot containing 640 coins dating from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; in October 1961, at Vancé (Mayenne), while bulldozing a wall, a farmer uncovered three pots containing 5 silver coins, 12 coins of vellon and 4,483 copper coins, all dating from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; in March 1962, while excavating land to make foundations for a new building at Montargis, construction workers found 132 gold coins dating from the period 1445–1587.

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Most of the hoards contain between 50 and 500 coins but much larger finds are not uncommon. During repairs to a house in the rue d’Assaut in Paris in 1908, workers found a hoard of over 140,000 silver pennies dating from the thirteenth century. At Košice in Czechoslovakia in 1935 workers found a hoard of just under 3,000 gold coins of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The reasons for the high propensity to hoard are not difficult to detect. Conditions varied greatly from place to place and from period to period, but it is safe to say that in general people lived in constant fear of bandits and soldiers (occupations which were hardly distinguishable in those days) and robbery and plunder were regarded as a permanent menace. Hoarding coins was the easiest way to conceal and protect wealth. “Emergency hoards” were particularly frequent in areas and periods suffering from political and military turmoil, but hoarding was common also in areas and times of peace and stability. To understand this fact one has to consider that money in circulation consisted of pieces of metal. Gold and silver always had a special fascination for man, and the temptation to hoard gleaming pieces of gold and silver is stronger than the temptation to hoard printed paper. More important than that, institutions to collect savings and to direct them to productive uses were either lacking or inadequate. In this regard, as we shall see (Part II, Chapter 7), momentous changes took place after the tenth century. By the fourteenth century a common man, Paolo di Messere Pace da Certaldo in Tuscany, strongly advised “people who have cash not to keep it idle at home.”67 But commercial and credit developments took place mostly in the major cities. In the minor cities or in the countryside, hoarding remained the preferred form of saving. When Pasino degli Eustachi, a rich merchant and at the same time an official in the administration of the Duke of Milan, died in Pavia (Lombardy) in 1445, his estate included:68

Cash Jewels Provisions Clothing Furniture and household goods Buildings Land Capitalized value of rents

Value in golden ducats 92,500 2,225 150 1,495 483 5,000 12,300 5,000 119, 153

Percentage of wealth 77.6 1.9 0.1 1.3 0.4 4.2 10.3 4.2 100.0

Coins represented in relative terms about 78 percent of the value of the estate. As the golden ducat weighed 3.53 grams, in absolute terms the coins hoarded amounted to about 720 pounds of gold—and in those days, the purchasing power of gold was much higher than it is today. Admittedly, Pasino was an extreme case because as a government official he enjoyed an extraordinarily high income and Pavia, the small town in which he lived, did not offer great opportunities for investment. In the large cities where credit and commercial institutions had developed and were continuously developing, things were different. However, even in such major centers people easily resorted to hoarding. A good example is provided by Samuel Pepys. He was an extremely capable administrator and lived in the bustling, mercantile London of the seventeenth century. On the night of 12 June 1667, when news came that the Dutch had broken the chain in the Medway and burnt The Royal Charles, Samuel Pepys discussed with his wife and father what to do with “the little that I have in money by me.” Next morning he sent the pair off by coach with £1,300 in gold, and instructions to conceal the money safely at his country estate in Huntingdonshire. Later in the day he dispatched his clerk with another thousand guineas to the same

28

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

destination, while he himself acquired a belt in which, very uncomfortably, he could conceal £300 in gold on his person. Not until four months later was Pepys able to recover what had been buried, digging at night in his garden with the help of a lantern, under extremely exasperating conditions: the exact place of the hoard could not be found, his arguments with his father were hampered by the fact that the latter was deaf, and Pepys dared not shout for fear of attracting the attention of neighbors. I find the story rather humorous, but the reason why I report it at length is that it shows that even in bustling seventeenth-century London, a man like Samuel Pepys, who was comfortably off but not rich, kept nearly £3,000 in gold coins in his house and could refer to it, apparently without affectation, as “the little that I have in money by me.”69 Of course, if there were people who hoarded wealth, there were others who dis-hoarded it. At the beginning of the eleventh century the Archbishop of Cologne used up all the treasure accumulated by his predecessors to help the poor in time of famine. When Bishop Burkard of Worms died in 1025, he left behind some books and three pennies, having lavished on the poor all the treasure he had inherited. In accordance with the mystical spirit of the age, deliberate dis-hoarding on the part of an ecclesiastical dignitary was often presented as the result of miraculous divine activity. Thus when the Bishop of Orleans spent all his treasure on the construction of the new cathedral, Raoul Glaber recounted the story in the following terms: While the Bishop and all his associates were busily pressing on with the work that had been started, he was visibly blessed with Divine encouragement. One day, when masons were testing the firmness of the ground to select a site for the basilica’s foundations, they came across a considerable quantity of gold. They estimated that there would certainly be enough to carry out all the work of restoration on the basilica, despite its size. They picked up the gold discovered and conveyed it to the Bishop. He gave thanks to Almighty God for the gift, took it and consigned it to those in charge of the work, telling them to spend it all on building the church.70 The sacking and robberies of armed bands served by turns to build up treasures and to put them back in circulation. When Charlemagne succeeded in penetrating the intricate fortifications of the Avars, he found there riches accumulated over centuries. Fifteen big wagons, each drawn by four oxen, were needed to carry the gold, silver and gems back to Aachen. From a macroeconomic point of view the relevant point is whether, during a given period, the total amount of hoarding was greater, equal or smaller than the total amount of dis-hoarding. Historically there have been periods when hoarding clearly prevailed, and periods of net dis-hoarding. In Italy in the tenth and eleventh centuries, bishops and monasteries emptied their treasuries during their struggle against the German emperors.71 The bishops across the Alps did the same for the benefit of various reform movements.72 Throughout Europe the feverish activity in religious building which characterized the eleventh and twelfth centuries was seemingly financed through a massive process of dis-hoarding.73 When wealth is hoarded it is not available for investment. On the other hand, hoarding may occur because investment is not attractive.74 Conversely, dis-hoarding was generally related to periods of investment euphoria and all the reclamations of land which were accomplished, the cathedrals, the castles, the palaces which were built, the canals which were excavated, the ships which were launched, clearly show that periods of investment euphoria were not so rare in preindustrial Europe. PUBLIC DEMAND So far we have dealt with private demand. Let us now consider public demand.

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29

It is necessary to state in advance that, before the eighteenth century, public and private sectors are difficult to distinguish, and the earlier the period in question, the more artificial and antihistorical the distinction becomes. The fact is that in the feudal world of the eighth to eleventh centuries there was no distinction between public and private. With the emergence of the city-states and then the absolute states, the distinction between public and private re-emerged, but these two concepts asserted themselves very slowly and not contemporaneously in the various sectors. As far as government finance is concerned, until recent times European monarchs made no distinction between their private patrimonies and the treasuries of the states. In fourteenth- and fifteenth-century France, even the seigneurs of the kingdom thought “that they had rights to the financial resources of the state and that it was legitimate for them to get hold of a large part of such resources.”75 As for seventeenth-century England, “in every sense it is probably more illuminating to speak of royal rather than public finance since far from distinguishing between the financial problems of the Crown and those of the private individual, contemporaries show a remarkable fondness for the analogy between the position of the King and that of the private landowners.”76 Another factor that helped to obscure the distinction between the private and public domains was the powerful presence of the Church as a patrimonial and economic entity. Was the Church a private entity, or was it, rather, a public body? Any answer would be arbitrary, for although we raise this question today, it did not exist in the minds of the people at that time. In the following pages, we shall consider the Church as distinct from both the private and the public sectors. This distinction is also arbitrary; but as stated above, any alternative solution would be equally arbitrary. The level and the structure of public demand depends on a. the income of the public power b. the “wants” of those in power and of the community which they control or represent c. the price structure Point (a) needs some comment. While in the case of private people, income, in a sense, is given, public powers have the potential to increase taxes so that up to a certain point their income is also a function of their “wants.” “Up to a certain point” only, because beyond that point fiscal pressure can dry up the sources of income; in other words, you cannot eat the cow and then hope for milk. Fundamentally, public authorities might derive income from (1) the forced transfer of income from the private sector via taxation; (2) the transfer of income and/or wealth through public loans which, as we shall see, were also often forced; (3) from the economic exploitation of what we would nowadays refer to as state property; and (4) from “seigniorage” or “gain of the mint.” As regards public debt, one should recall that this form of income or wealth transfer was unknown in either ancient Rome or ancient Greece. Public debt was an invention of the Italian city-states of the Middle Ages. These so-called “loanings” were in fact moneys lent to the state by private citizens: but mostly they were “forced” loans. A citizen might, in other words, be forced to lend the Commune a sum of money, calculated by officials of the Commune on the basis of the economic resources of the citizen in question. The citizen would receive interest on the sum lent and if the loan was not consolidated the citizen might hope that the sum would eventually be paid back. Very often, however, citizens forced to loan money to the Commune later found themselves short of cash, having invested their wealth in property or in merchandise. They might then be prepared to waive their credit to the Commune to another citizen for an amount of money smaller than the sum originally lent. They would thereby incur a straight loss, whereas citizens who had plenty of ready cash could indulge in lucrative speculation.

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BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Public debt was developed furthest in Genoa, Venice, and Florence. In Florence, because of the wars the city fought with ever more costly companies of mercenaries and with artillery, the public debt rose from around 50,000 gold florins in 1300 to around 450,000 gold florins in 1338, and topped 600,000 by 1343. In Genoa public debt titles were known as luoghi (shares) and were managed by the Banco di San Giorgio which was the state’s creditors’ consortium. The luoghi issued by the San Giorgio bank each had a face value of 100 lire but were bought and sold by citizens and foreigners just like present-day stocks and shares, their market price rising and falling freely above and below their face value, reflecting fluctuations in supply and demand. The Genoese luoghi provided a variable income, based on the income of the Republic’s taxes (managed by the Bank). In this they were different from the fixed income public debt titles issued by Venice. In Spain, between 1550 and 1650, the Genoese, who had by this time amassed several centuries of expertise in managing public debt, exploited the opportunity provided by the hopelessly indebted Spanish state to establish a busy and complex traffic in public debt titles know as “juros.” In France, public debt was introduced under Francis I in 1522 when the French king borrowed 200,000 livres tournois at 12½ percent interest from Paris merchants. In 1560 Caterina de Medici, Charles IX’s regent, informed the nobility that the Crown debt stood at 42 million lire. By 1642 the debt had swollen to 600 million lire and the interest payments swallowed up more than half of the state’s income. In England public debt was initiated in 1689 and because of costly warfare had risen by 1697 to £21.5 million. The War of the Spanish succession pushed the debt to £54 million and by the end of the War of the Austrian succession in 1748 it totalled £78 million. The protests and complaints of taxpayers are the most frequently encountered items in the documents of every age and country. In the Middle Ages, the chorus of protestations was joined by the moralists and the political theorists (the two groups being scarcely distinguishable), who never missed an opportunity to point out that any prince who fleeced his subjects so that he might live in pomp or wage a war was committing a deadly sin. If one were to take the content of all these documents and texts literally, one would conclude that people were constantly being bled to death by greedy and bloody rulers. There is no doubt that throughout the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance the public powers managed to broaden the tax base, to eliminate the constitutional obstacles to taxation, and to raise the rate of taxation. They also constantly devised new and ingenious fiscal expedients. In France after 1522 the Crown’s efforts to increase the number of fiscal windfalls and to search out additional expedients was institutionalized in the form of a fiscal bureau with the superbly well-chosen name of the office of parties casuelles. All this reflected the emergence of the modern state from the ruins of the feudal world, and the progressive enlargement of its functions. The revenues of the republic of Siena at the beginning of the thirteenth century were about 1,000 lire a month in tributes and loans; by mid-century they were about 20,000 lire a month, and at the end of the century about 50,000 lire.77 The total revenues of the Republic of Venice increased from about 250,000 ducats around 1340 to about 1.15 million ducats around 1500, to about 2.45 million ducats around 1600.78 The income of the Pope rose from 170,000 ducats of “spiritual revenues” and 120, 000 ducats of “temporal revenues” in 1480 to 202,000 ducats of “spiritual revenues” and 220,000 ducats of “temporal revenues” in 1525.79 InSpain the income drawn with two taxes, the alcabala and the millones, increased by more than 500 percent between 1504 and 1596. Moreover, while in 1504 the revenue from the alcabala represented 85 percent of the state’s revenues, in 1596 it represented only 25 percent.80 In England the revenues of the Crown grew from about £140,000 a year around 1510 to about £860,000 a year around 1640.81 In France the revenues of the Crown rose from about 4 million livres around 1500 to about 31 million around 1610.82

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31

Information of this kind strikes the imagination, but we must beware of misleading appearances: the figures quoted above have to be seen against the background of rising prices, growing population, and increased wealth. Similarly, the hue and cry of the moralists and the political theorists must be interpreted in the light of the view that a well-ordered state should be funded without taxation.83 The fact of the matter was that the fiscal pressure from the public administration was always met with resistance, often strong and sometimes insuperable. The preindustrial state did not have at its disposal the techniques and the means of investigation available to the industrial state, and the concealment of wealth was relatively easy. Moreover, the nobles and the clergy normally enjoyed fiscal immunity. As late as 1659 in the territory of Ravenna (Italy), clergy, nobility, and foreigners were exempt from paying taxes, and they held 35, 42, and 15 percent of the land, respectively.84 Some professional groups, such as university professors in Renaissance Italy and lawyers and doctors in fourteenth-century France, were also normally excused from paying taxes. Such privileges did not, like a talisman, protect the recipients for evermore. In the course of time both the Church and the nobility lost ground in their effort to evade taxes, and at times exceptionally energetic rules brushed aside existing privileges. Still, over most of Europe for most of the time, fiscal privileges were a reality that created delays, reduced receipts, and complicated the tax-raising process. Worst of all, fiscal privileges also forced the public power to turn to indirect taxation, which fell heavily on the consumption of necessities. Consequently the fiscal burden hit the poor proportionally harder, which in turn explains the complaints, protests, and lamentations mentioned above. All in all, one must admit that the portion of income drawn by the public sector most certainly increased from the eleventh century onwards all over Europe, but it is difficult to imagine that, apart from particular times and places, the public power ever managed to draw more than 5 to 8 percent of national income.85 As has been said above, given the size of public revenues and the structure of pricing, the level and structure of public demand depend on the wants of the public powers and the community they control or represent. In preindustrial Europe the wants that counted were, of course, the wants of those in power. These wants were generally related to war and defense, civil administration, court life, and festivities. Publicly organized feasts had both a practical purpose and a symbolic value. They amused the populace, pacifying it with diversions and charity.86 At the same time, they were intended to represent symbolically a certain sharing of interests and sentiments between the people and the prince—thus the festive celebrations after a military victory, the birth of an heir, the recovery of a prince, and the end of an epidemic. Some of these celebrations cost enormous fortunes. To facilitate description, we have distinguished between expenditures on festivities and those on administration, but the people of the time would have wondered at this distinction. The administrative tasks of the state were very few and simple, and the organization of public festivities was regarded as one of them. A major item of expenditure was embassies and other forms of representation. Part of this money was spent, again, on pomp, banqueting, and festivities, and part went on informers and spies. For the rest, little was spent. It is true that from the twelfth century onward bureaucrats became progressively more numerous, but many administrative tasks continued to be performed by noblemen who—in deference to the principle of noblesse oblige—received no salary for their activity, though they often found other and not always reputable ways to obtain some compensation. One type of public demand deserves special consideration, although it did not represent a large figure in the budgets. Given the low level of income, the mass of the population could hardly satisfy the most elementary wants for food, shelter, and clothing. A series of other wants, especially for medical and education services, while strongly felt, could not be satisfied because people did not have the income necessary to translate them into effective demand. In the communes of Italy and Flanders, it was speedily recognized that some of these wants qualified as necessities with an ethical and social value that could not be ignored. Thus a system

32

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

of paying doctors, surgeons, and teachers with “public money” was devised so that any sick person, even if he was poor, could be treated, and the children of common people could go to school. In 1288, Milan (Italy), with approximately 60,000 people, had three surgeons “receiving salary from the community” who had to treat “all the poor who needed care.” In 1324 Venice, with a population of about 100,000, had thirteen physicians and eighteen surgeons who were on the payroll of the community to serve the poor. In 1630 in the smaller centers in the provinces of Florence and Pisa, thirty physicians out of fifty-five and twenty-four surgeons out of sixty-two were “municipal.” Outside Italy, there were municipal doctors in Bruges in the thirteenth century; in Lille, Ypres, and Dunkirk in the fourteenth; and later in Bordeaux, Freibourg, Basel, Colmar, Paris, Lyon, and other cities.87 In education also, public demand acquired progressively more importance. In the early Middle Ages the very few who received an education received it in convents or from private teachers. With the emergence of the communes, the practice of paying teachers with public money spread. Private teaching never disappeared completely and until recently continued to play an important role, particularly in the education of the children of the upper class. But public teachers and schools spread fairly rapidly after the eleventh century. It is worth recalling the wise words with which the administrators of a modest Tuscan community—Casteldelpiano—decided in 1571 to allocate part of the modest funds of the community to the employment of a schoolteacher: That for no other reason nor occasion could they make as convenient and lawful use of the funds of their community to the benefit of the community and the citizens as in this, namely, in hiring a schoolteacher. Education may be viewed not as consumption but as investment in human capital. As to public investment of a more conventional type one must mention military construction like city walls (see Table 1.9), fortifications, castles, and so on. Other kinds of public construction included communal buildings, hospitals, and bridges. Finally, there was construction of a conspicuous type, such as the royal palaces. In Renaissance Italy, the more illustrious princes invested considerable resources also in the embellishment of the cities. Guns and warships are an unattractive form of capital, but they are capital goods, and from the middle of the fifteenth century they absorbed rapidly increasing amounts of public expenditure. We shall see below that in the private sector part of the available resources were always used to build up and maintain food reserves. The same is true of the public sector. The public authorities were doubly interested in the problem of food supplies: first, for humanitarian reasons and for good administration; second, for reasons of political stability, because hunger was the most frequent cause of popular revolts and insurrections. In 1549 the Venetian officer Bernardo Navagero wrote to the Venetian senate: “I do not esteem that there is anything more important in the government of cities than this, namely the stocking of grains, because fortresses cannot be held if there are no victuals and because most revolts and seditions originate from hunger.” Florence, Pisa, Lucca, Siena, and other cities established “Uffici dell’ Abbondanza” (Offices of Abundance) between the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth centuries. These Uffici were entrusted with the task of overseeing food supply and building up public stores for distribution in time of scarcity. Grain purchases on the part of the Commune of Florence pro annona publica are mentioned in documents as early as 1139.88 Another case of acquisition of grain on the Table 1.9 Dates of construction and length of city walls in relation to population in selected cities

Avignon

Date of construction

Length (in kilometers)

Population (in thousands)

1355–1377

5

30

DEMAND

Tours Ghent Orleans Reims Louvain Brussels

Date of construction

Length (in kilometers)

Population (in thousands)

1355–1360 13th–14th cent. 1466–1486 1337–1360 1357–1379 1357–1379

4.5 12.7 6 6.5 7 7

10 60 12 14 15 13

33

part of the Commune of Florence for the building up of public reserves is recorded in a document of May 1258.89 By the beginning of the fifteenth century the municipality of Frankfurt-am-Main (Germany) had an elaborate system of reserves fed by taxes in kind. Occasionally the community resorted to market operations as in 1437 when it purchased up to 28,380 bushels of grain to be stored.90 At Bassano (Italy) in the second half of the fifteenth century, the town administration built a fondaco (depot) in which it stored grain against future needs.91 At Modena (Italy), there was a public body for the establishment and maintenance of food reserves. Besides the public body, however, in 1501 a Santo Monte della Farina (Holy Mountain of Flour) was set up on the initiative of Father Girolamo da Verona. It was designed to store grain, but it was administered by the guilds of the city.92 Obviously, faith in state bureaucracy was shaky. Where enlightened administrations held power, public investment of a more productive nature was also undertaken. Between 1168 and 1191, Philippe d’Alsace, Count of Flanders, opened canals linking the valley of the Escaut with the coast and created the new harbors of Gravelines, Nieuport, and Damme. About the same time the Bishops of Bremen and Hamburg organized the reclamation of the marshy lands called Stauffen. In 1230–31 the Commune of Bologna spent considerable sums on the purchase of machinery which was freely given to immigrant craftsmen for the development of woollen and silk manufactures. In Florence during the depression that accompanied the plague of 1631, The Grand Duke made eighteen-month interest-free loans for a total amount of 150,000 scudi to the wool and silk workshops, so that they could continue to work and thus support the labor force of these principal crafts in the city. He also ordered the start of construction of the façade of Santa Maria del Fiore and the completion of the Pitti Palace. All this was done to support more craftsmen and laborers. And since the farm laborers are the backbone of the state, he also provided for them by making them dig ditches and canals to draw plenty of water for the use and beautification of the city.93 The relative importance of the various kinds of public expenditure varied noticeably from place to place and from time to time, so that any attempt to reconstruct the patterns of a typical budget would have little or no meaning. One should also distinguish between the demand of the central administrations and the demand of the local administrations. However, whether one considers the north or the south of Europe, bad or good times, local or central administrations, one finds that the largest portion of public expenditure was always devoted to payments of interest and above all to military affairs. The fact that so many developments of a technological nature, from the casting of iron to the emergence of schools of veterinary science and engineering, had military beginnings clearly indicates the sector favored by public spending.

34

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Commenting on the budget of the Venetian republic, Fabio Besta concluded that public spending on public works was “not high” (with the exception of outlays for the defense of the lagoon against the damage done by the sea and the rivers), interest paid on public loans “appears in all the budgets to be high,” spending on embassies and representatives “was always considerable,” and military expenditure “surpassed by far all the other expenditures and at times reached extraordinary levels.”94 It has been estimated that at the end of the sixteenth century in Venice expenditures on the fleet and the arsenal alone amounted to 25 to 30 percent of revenues,95 to which must be added the expenditure for the land army. This was in time of peace. In time of war the standard revenues were not sufficient, and it was necessary to resort to voluntary and/or forced loans and/or to the depreciation of the currency to pay for military expenditures. Early in the sixteenth century, military affairs absorbed about 60 percent of the public expenditure provided by the budget of the Duchy of Milan.96 In England, Henry V spent about two-thirds of his budget plus nearly all of the revenues from his French possessions for military purposes. Three-quarters of the public expenditures in the last five years of the reign of Elizabeth I were for war or war-related activities. In the first years of the reign of James I the proportion was cut to one-third, but it rose later in his reign.97 Things have not changed much since those days. Today military expenditure may represent a smaller share of public expenditure, but public expenditure accounts for a higher percentage of national income.98 What has been said so far in regard to public expenditure can be usefully complemented with the presentation of a few selected public budgets. Table 1.10 summarizes the annual average public expenditure of Perugia (Italy) in the first half of the fourteenth century. Perugia was then a free commune, that is, a citystate: military expenditure accounted for one-third of the Table 1.10 Annual average expenditure provided in the budgets of the Commune of Perugia in the first decade of the fourteenth century Type of expenditure

Lire

Percent of budget

Wages Military Embassies Public works Charity Miscellaneous

21,299 21,022 2,420 5,050 3,600 10,184 63,575

34 33 4 8 6 15 100

Source: Mira, “Le entrate patrimoniali di Perugia,” p. 21.

Table 1.11 Expenditure provided in the budget of the Kingdom of Naples, 1591–92 Type of expenditure

Ducats

Percent

Dues to the Apostolic See Honorarium to the Viceroy Court expenditure Embassies and secret expenditure Wages and salaries University

12,632 10,000 10,021 187,690 66,696 2,256

1 1 1 9 3 —

DEMAND

Type of expenditure

Ducats

Percent

Head Physician (health) Mail and couriers Police Charity Army and navy Outstanding interests Miscellaneous Total

145 22,000 38,557 2,556 1,091,299 485,172 48,752 1,977,776

— 1 2 — 55 25 2 100

35

Source: Amodeo, A proposito di un antico bilancio; compare also Coniglio, Il viceregno di Napoli, pp. 123 et seq.

budget. Table 1.11 summarizes the budget of the Kingdom of Naples for the 1591–92 fiscal year. As the figures show, military expenditure amounted to 55 percent of the total. In assessing the expenditure of the central administrations of the states of preindustrial Europe, one must bear in mind that the central authority at that time was infinitely less encroaching and pervasive than in the industrial state. Several activities were left to the competence of the local administrations which also contributed, with their expenditure, to public demand. In general, in the budgets of the local authorities, administrative outlays made up a bigger share of the whole, but not much bigger. In the budgets of the local administrations, especially in the case of French, German and Italian towns, military spending often weighed excessively, in the form of troop billeting, contributions toward the purchase of arms, and repairs of city walls. In this respect, for totally different reasons, English and Swiss towns fared much better. DEMAND OF THE CHURCH One can hardly overestimate the importance of the Church as an economic entity in preindustrial Europe. The Church was always ready to condemn those who pursued Mammon, but it never applied to itself the advice it preached to others. The Church acquired most of its properties through donations from people seeking a passport to Paradise. In this regard the Golden Age for the Christian Church was in the centuries which preceded the eleventh. At the time the barbarian kings, heirs to the vast latifundia bequeathed by the Roman emperors, had at their disposal a well-nigh inexhaustible store of wealth in the form of land, mostly depopulated, which they were quite unable to manage themselves. Counts and barons were in a similar position and their propensity to donate to the Church was proportionate to their fondness for robbery and plunder. Especially the monasteries amassed extraordinary fortunes. The Abbey of St Bertin owned some 25,000 acres in the ninth century. The nucleus of estates of the Lorsch Abbey comprised half the surface of what later would become the Palatinate of the Rhine. The land held by the Abbey of St Germain des Prés in the ninth century consisted of some 35 to 38 square kilometers99. It is hard for the modern observer to visualize the magnitude of such estates. In the following centuries, the process of cumulation continued at a slower pace but accelerated in times of disaster and catastrophe. When the Black Death devastated the Iberian Peninsula in 1347–51, the nobles and the wealthy of Castile outdid themselves in donating lands and buildings to the Church. At the end of the epidemic, the dislocation of wealth was such that in 1351 King Pedro I (possibly entreated by those survivors to whom, ex post, the price paid for the help of Providence must have seemed excessive) ordered the Church to return at least part of the donations it had received.

36

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Donations were supplemented by acquisitions and for one reason or another the wealth of the Church kept increasing (see Table 1.12). Throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the growing size of the ecclesiastical land holdings was a source of constant concern to the Republic of Venice. In Tuscany, by the end of the sixteenth century, the Church had come to own such a large proportion of the houses and the land in the city and territory of Pistoia that the local people petitioned the Pope to prohibit both churches and monasteries from acquiring or inheriting additional holdings. In the province of Ravenna the clergy held about 27 percent of the land in 1569; it held 30 percent by 1612–14, 35 percent by 1659, and 36 percent by 1731. By the middle of the eighteenth century, the Church owned between 50 and 65 percent of the land in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.100 Every now and then, however, the Church fell upon hard times, times in which bad administration or individual cunning unfavorably affected its property. Before the eighteenth century, the worst period was perhaps the Reformation. The dissolution of the English monasteries by Henry VIII in the first half of the sixteenth century is deservedly famous. About 1430 the English monasteries owned about 15 percent of the English land while the rest of the Church owned another 10 percent and the Crown only 6 percent. In 1530 there were about 825 monasteries in England with about 9, 300 monks and nuns. The total annual net income of the religious orders amounted to about £175,000, or nearly three-quarters as much again as the Table 1.12 Size of the ecclesiastical property in selected areas of the Florentine Territory in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Territory

Size of the territory in acres Percentage of lands owned by the Church

1427

1498

1508–12

Acone (Valdisieve) Gaville (Valdarno) Macioli (Valli del Mugnone and della Carza) Monteceraia (Mugello) Montulivi (Valdipesa) Mosciano (Florence) Panzano (Valdigreve and Valdipesa) Passignano (Valdipesa) Paterno (Florence) Pulica (Valdipesa) Le Rose (Florence) Rostolena (Mugello)

319 1,986 3,684 2,249 907 385 2,852 1,804 692 1,124 504 3,197

14 10 7 2 2 9 19 46 6 15 23 8

13 23 15 7 24 33 21 60 31 26 18 6

27 24 15 7 36 19 64 27 28 16 6

Source: Conti, La formazione della struttura agraria, vol. 3, part 2, pp. 26ff.

average annual income of the Crown at the same date.101 By 1550 nothing was left of the English monasteries and their immense estates. Not only were their lands confiscated and sold, but their furniture, silver, libraries, jewels, and other holdings were also dispersed. In Yorkshire alone, the revenues to the Crown from this despoliation were as follows:102

DEMAND

Year of account Value of jewels and plate and proceeds from sale of goods 1536 1538–39 1541–42 1544–45

(£) 3,102 1,639 158 149

37

Income from rents Total income (£) 186 3,200 11,061 8,837

(£) 3,288 4,839 11,219 8,986

In Sweden, Gustav Vasa was no less formidable than Henry VIII was in England. Between 1500 and 1550 ecclesiastical property in Sweden was literally liquidated for the benefit of the Crown (Table 1.13). What the Reformation did in these areas was done in Lombardy by bad administration, nepotism, and the policies of the dukes. In fact, in Lombardy the ruin of the ecclesiastical estate began well before it began in the countries affected by the Reformation. The erosion became evident in the Table 1.13 Percentage distribution of land ownership in Sweden between 1500 and 1700 Year

Crown Church Nobles Peasants

2500

1560

1700

5 21 22 52 100

28 — 22 50 100

36 — 33 31 100

Source: Hecksher, An Economic History of Sweden, pp. 67 and 126.

second half of the fourteenth century and progressively accelerated during the fifteenth century and the first half of the sixteenth. By 1555, in the State of Milan, the Church held only about 15 percent of the land.103 We do not know precisely what it held one and a half centuries earlier, but we have reason to believe that its property was much greater. The State of Milan was not unique. In the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza as well as in the Duchy of Mantua, by the end of the sixteenth century, the Church was left with only about 9 percent of the land.104 Elsewhere, however, as in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and in Spain, ecclesiastical property continued to grow throughout the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 1592, the grand duke of Tuscany declared to the cardinal of Florence that “there are very many people and the territory is cramped and ecclesiastic bodies own a great part of it” and that due to the institution of the dead hand “in sixty or seventy years the nuns will have swallowed up everything.” The following year in Pistoia, considering that the Church owned “four fifths and more of the possessions of their city and surrounding countryside,” the citizenry asked that “no holdings of whatever sort” should be further enlarged.105 As indicated, the current income of the Church did not come only from revenues from its estates, but also from transfers of income. Such transfers were in part voluntary (charity, donations, and such) and in part forced (tithes). The Reformation cut into this source as well. In Geneva, for example, in 1544 alone, 12,000 florins in papal tithes were appropriated by the Commune, which spent 4,000 for the Protestant pastors and 1,500 for the hospital.106

38

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

For a long time, the Church State resisted the temptation to resort to public credit because of the scruples that discouraged it from paying the interest rates it denounced from the pulpit. But in 1526, under pressure from exceptional financial troubles, Pope Clement VII (a Medici from Florence and accordingly very skilled in the handling of public loans and interest rates) took the heroic decision to launch a public loan for the sum of 200,000 gold ducats at a rate of 10 percent. By 1592 the debt had reached 5.6 million scudos, by 1604 roughly 9 million, by 1616 15 million and by 1657 28 million. In 1599 the payment of interest on this debt accounted for 35 percent of total State expenditure. It is easy and in a sense justifiable to speak of the Church, but the Church was an abstraction. The reality was represented by a vast array of economic units endowed with vastly different amounts of wealth and income. There were the pope, the cardinals, the bishops, the wealthy monasteries whose economic condition was in all respects comparable to that of the richest nobles.107 And there were also country priests and the mendicant orders, and they shared the fate of the humblest and poorest classes. The distribution of wealth within the Church reflected the unequal distribution of wealth in society as a whole. Conti has highlighted the ruin of the lower and middle clergy, and the enrichment of the monasteries, in the territory of Florence in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.108 In the seventeenth century in the district of Ravenna, according to G.Porisini, 70 percent of the Church’s enormous property was held by the four wealthy abbeys of Ravenna, while the remaining 30 percent was divided among many parishes, chapters, and secular clergy.109 In the Duchy of Urbino, three abbeys which represented only 9 percent of ecclesiastical proprietors controlled about 70 percent of ecclesiastical property.110 In the region northeast of Paris in 1639, out of thirty-five parishes, some had property valued between 140 and 200 livres, while one had property to the tune of about 20,000 livres.111 In the territory of Cannes (France) in 1772, the Church held about 10 percent of the landed property, but most of this property was concentrated in the hands of the abbey of Lerins; the other priests of the area had a very small share.112 The aggregate effective demand of the Church was the sum of a vast range of different schedules of demand. The demand of the poorer units was directed above all to food and clothing, their demand schedule closely resembling that of family units in the poorer classes. The demand of the bishops, cardinals, and monasteries on the other hand, paralleled the structure of demand of the upper classes. At the apex of this imposing structure, the demand of the papal court had all the characteristics of the conspicuous demand of a lavishly rich princely court. FOREIGN DEMAND So far we have dealt with internal demand. Every economic system has, however, a network of exchanges with other economic systems. These exchanges include exchanges of goods and services, transfers of wealth, and movements of capital and precious metals. The foreign trade of a given country consists of its imports and exports. Exports are the response to foreign demand, while imports are determined by internal demand. As indicated above, the demand of the mass of the populace was largely centered on food, and the consumption expenditure of the wealthy was largely—and conspicuously—directed toward food, clothing, and housing. In view of this fact, it is not surprising that the great bulk of foreign trade consisted of foodstuffs and textiles. As late as the end of the sixteenth century, cloth accounted for about 80 percent of the total exports of England while textile materials, groceries, timber, and wine were the four main categories on the imports side. Owing to high transportation costs, especially during the Middle Ages, foreign trade was largely—though by no means exclusively—concerned with high-quality products; hence the large share of spices and expensive wines in the international exchange of primary products and the

DEMAND

39

large share of luxury cloths in the international exchange of textiles. It also followed that the mass of the people generally had to content itself with local products and that only the well-to-do could afford exotic produce. The ability of the average man in the street to walk into a shop in Milan or in London to buy something produced in Hong Kong or Tangier is a recent development made possible by the Industrial Revolution. To measure foreign trade, one can add together the values of imports and exports and compare the total to the Gross National Product. The result is influenced by the volume and the value of imports and exports, but also by other factors, such as the physical size of the country and the size of its population which are relevant in determining the size of the Gross National Product. A country like the United States might have considerable foreign trade, but given the vastness of the country, the greater part of economic activity exhausts itself within its boundaries, where a wide variety of resources is found. For a little country like Luxembourg, on the other hand, nearly every exchange is an international exchange, and, therefore, in relation to the Gross National Product, the value of foreign trade represents a much higher percentage. In recent years, the ratio was about 10 percent for the United States and about 160 percent for Luxembourg. The number of studies devoted to international trade in medieval and Renaissance Europe defies imagination, but the focus has been almost exclusively on commercial techniques and the behavior and fortunes of individual firms. The lack of statistical material worthy of the name has perpetuated the lack of interest in certain macroeconomic relationships. England is perhaps the country for which the best statistics on foreign trade exist for the preindustrial era (see Table 1.14). One can estimate that at the beginning of the reign of Henry VII English imports and exports were balanced at the level of about £300,000 a year; by the end of the seventeenth century, exports (of locally produced goods) had increased to about £4.5 million a year and imports to about £4.7 million a Table 1.14 Approximate value of English imports and exports, 1500–1700 (million of current pounds) Exports c. 1490 c. 1600 c. 1640 c. 1660 1700–09

0.3 1.0 2.3 3.0 4.5

Re-exports

Total exports

Net imports 0.3

0.5 0.9 1.7

2.8 3.9 6.2

2.2 3.1 4.7

Sources: Davis, Commercial Revolution; Minchinton, English Overseas Trade, pp. 9–15; Schumpeter, English Overseas Statistics; Gould, Economic Growth, p. 221n; Coleman, The Economy of England, p. 133. Between 1500 and 1700 the general level of prices rose about 400 percent.

year. This increase reflected in part a rise in prices but was mostly due to a remarkable increase in the volume of foreign trade. At the end of the seventeenth century, exports of domestic goods alone must have come to 10 percent of the national product. For states territorially much smaller than England, such as the Communes of Florence and Genoa or the Republic of Venice, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the ratio of foreign trade to the national product must have been nearer to the level of Luxembourg today than to that of England at the end of the seventeenth century. As for other countries, it is difficult to say. Moreover, while it makes some sense to consider England as a whole, since the country was fairly well integrated economically, it would be

40

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

stretching history too much to consider, for example, fourteenth-century France or sixteenth-century Germany as economic units. From a general point of view, there is no doubt that the development of international trade brought positive overall net effects. But from the point of view of single regions, or even of single states or nations, the problem is not so simple.113 The idea of trade as an “engine of growth” is a gross over-simplification. For any given society, the long-run consequences of foreign trade depend largely on the qualitative structure of that trade and the effects of foreign demand on both patterns of employment and capital formation in the society in question. The economic development of the Italian communes was largely related to the development of foreign trade. But examples to the contrary are not difficult to find, even without turning to the cases of colonies or of certain countries in Latin America today. The strong Dutch demand for grain on the Polish market in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; the Dutch, English, and French demand for oil and silk on the Italian market in the seventeenth century, favored the involution of the economies of Poland and Italy along feudalagricultural lines and created the preconditions for long-term stagnation in these countries. In Portugal, about half a century after the Methuen Treaty of 1703; the Marquis of Pombal could justifiably complain that “two-thirds of our necessities are now supplied by England. The English produce, sell, and resell everything which is needed in our country. The ancient manufactures of Portugal have been destroyed.” Port wine and the gold of Brazil paid for the imports, and the pressure of foreign demand kept Portugal’s human and physical resources strictly tied to the agricultural and mining sectors.

2 THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

CLASSES OF “INPUTS” A productive system can be fancifully described as a huge box: certain things flow in one side and other things flow out the other side. What flows in, we call input, and what flows out, we call output. Input is made up of heterogeneous elements called factors of production. Traditionally economists group the innumerable and heterogeneous factors of production under three broad headings, called, respectively, labor, capital, and natural resources (the last category including land as well as water supply, iron ore, coal deposits, and so forth). Like most classifications, the tripartition is arbitrary and oversimplifies matters, but as it has proven useful for analytical purposes, we adopt it in the historical analysis below. However, it is essential to sound a warning. One of the major difficulties in historical reconstruction is that, in order to express ourselves, we must make use of the current language. Unfortunately, the words we use daily evoke in our minds pictures of the contemporary world. Expressions such as labor and capital automatically evoke in our minds the picture of the factory, with its high concentration of managers, wage laborers, and complex machinery. An effort of the imagination is required to recapture, behind the modern spoken expression, the very different reality of the past. In this attempt, one must be careful not to go to the other extreme, to fall victim to stereotyped, fanciful typologies. The factory in the modern sense did not exist; instead there was the small workshop. The equivalent of the modern businessman was the merchant, but he was not what we now mean by the word merchant. Specialization had not yet developed to the degree that characterizes industrial societies, and a merchant was very often the head of a manufacturing enterprise, a money lender, and a trader, all at the same time. As a trader he generally dealt in a variety of products, in cloths as well as spices, cereals as well as metals. Even the distinction between wholesale and retail trade did not exist. The one recognizable difference among merchants was that some operated on an international scale with substantial capital, while others were petty, local merchants of limited means and horizons. Similarly, for the term labor we must try to recapture a different reality from that which we associate with the term today. Wage labor did exist in preindustrial Europe, but it was not as preponderant as in the modern world. In agriculture, sharecropping was quite common and in most parts of Europe it was the predominant form of compensating agricultural labor. As for the manufacturing sector, all textbooks emphasize that, before the Industrial Revolution, the artisan was the most common type of worker. This is true, but the artisan was far from being a stereotype. There were many craftsmen who worked with the help of an apprentice. There were workshops with a number of artisans joined in a company. And there were

42

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

even more complex units in which craftsmen actually employed both wage-earners and apprentices and, we can now see, functioned as proto-capitalists. LABOR All members of a population are consumers, but not all of them are producers. Apart from parasites and the infirm, the youngest and oldest members of a population consume but do not produce. In any society, once population totals have been established, it is important to identify (a) the economically active population (those who produce and consume), (b) the dependent population (those who consume but do not produce), and (c) the relation between the two (dependency ratio).1 Prevailing birth and death rates and, in cases of significant migratory movements, immigration and emigration, determine the age structure of a given population. Preindustrial European societies were characterized by high fertility and high mortality rates. Consequently, the so-called age pyramid of European preindustrial populations normally presents a relatively wide base as against an acutely angled apex (see Figure 2.1). Consider the structure of two populations when both were at a preindustrial stage, namely, the Swedish population in the second half of the eighteenth century and the Italian population soon after the middle of the nineteenth century—the one Nordic and Protestant, the other Mediterranean and Catholic. The percentage distribution of the two populations divided into broad age groups is shown in Table 2.1. Despite wide differences in latitude, climate, color of eyes and hair, food, religion, and culture, in both cases the population in the fifteen to sixty-four age group represented little more than 60 percent of the total while the group under age fifteen made up almost a third. Before the nineteenth century, national censuses were not taken in Italy but data available on the population of various Italian cities confirm that the population under fifteen years of age always made up a third or more of the total population (see Table 2.2). Before proceeding, it may be useful to make a comparison with the Table 2.1 Percentage age distribution of two preindustrial populations, Sweden (1750) and Italy (1861) Age groups

Sweden 1750 %

Italy 1861 %

65 and over 15–64 0–14 Total

6 61 33 100

4 62 34 100

Table 2.2 Adolescents as percentage of total population in selected Italian areas, 1427–1642 City

Year

Age group

Percent of total population

Arezzo and surrounding countryside Pistoia and surrounding countryside Parma (city) Parma (countryside) Brescia Siena Vicenza

1427–29 1427–29 1545 1545 1579 1580 1585

0–14 0–14 0–14 0–14 0–18 0–10 0–15

32 37 32 41 40 23 42

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

Figure 2.1 Age and sex structure of the population of Sweden in 1750 and 1950. Source: Historisk Statistik for Sverige, Stockholm, 1955, vol. 1, Appendix fig. 4 (1750) and fig. 5 (1950). City

Year

Age group

Percent of total population

Milan Carmagnola Padua Venice

1610 1621 1634 1642

0–9 0–15 0–15 0–18

24 41 30 46

43

44

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

structure of industrial populations. Table 2.3 contains data relating to the Swedish and English populations in 1950–51. As one can see, in an industrialized society, the population in the fifteen to sixty-four age group represents about two-thirds of the total population, that is, little more than in the preindustrial society. The most striking difference between the societies of preindustrial Europe and those of contemporary Europe lies in the composition of the dependent population. While in modern Europe children of zero to fourteen years make up from 65 to 70 percent of the dependent population, in preindustrial Europe they represented about 90 percent. In other words, the burden of dependence in preindustrial Europe was almost totally represented by children. The gravity of the problem is measured by the number of abandoned children. In Venice in the sixteenth century, the Ospedale della Pietà usually cared for an average of 1,300 foundlings, which, out of a total population of Table 2.3 Percentage age distribution of two industrial populations, Sweden (1950) and England (1951) Age groups

Sweden 1950 %

England 1951 %

65 and over 15–64 0–14 Total

10 66 24 100

11 67 22 100

130,000 to 160,000, represented almost 1 percent.2 In Florence in 1552, in the Ospedale degli Innocenti there were 1,200 foundlings; out of a total population of about 60,000 the foundlings made up 2 percent. In Prato (Italy) in 1630 the Ospedale della Misericordia cared for 128 young girls, 54 boys, and 98 babies, a total of 280 foundlings. Prato then had a population of approximately 17,000, and the foundlings were, therefore, about 1.6 percent of the total population.3 It must be noted that values of the order of 1 or 2 percent of total population meant, in a preindustrial society, some 3 to 7 percent of the children in the age group zero to fourteen. It must also be remembered that the figures above refer in large measure to the number of foundlings who survived. According to a Venetian estimate in the sixteenth century, 80 to 90 percent of the foundlings died in their first year of life.4 If one relates the number of those “admitted to the Ospedale della Pietà” to the number of births in the city, one finds that in Venice, in the second half of the eighteenth century, foundlings represented 8 to 10 percent of all births (see Table 2.4). In Milan at the end of the seventeenth century the number of foundlings was on average 450 per year (Table 2.5), and this figure represented more than 12 percent of the estimated births in the city.5 Such high percentages must be viewed with caution. We know from various sources that those who wished to rid themselves of newly born babies often came from far away to abandon them in the city. The number of foundlings, therefore, ought to be related to a larger population than the local one. This would lower the percentages mentioned above, but even so, it would be difficult to deny that the practice of abandoning newborn babies was tragically widespread. In our industrial societies, we consider as economically active the population in the age group fifteen to sixty-four. It is an arbitrary assumption based on the rationales that (a) in many countries compulsory education for the young continues to the age of fifteen and (b) the age of sixty-five is, in many professions, the limit for retirement. In reality, however, there are individuals who start working long after their fifteenth year of age and others who start earlier. There are people who retire before sixty-five and

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

45

Table 2.4 Foundlings in Venice, 1756–87 Foundlings Year

M

F

MF

No. births

% foundlings over births

1756 1759 1765 1776 1782 1783 1785 1787

199 204 192 230 229 235 228 231

210 201 233 248 238 244 233 250

409 405 425 478 467 479 461 481

5246 5172 5090 5243 5166 5077 5074 5220

7.8 7.8 8.3 9.1 9.0 9.4 9.1 9.2

Source: Beltrami, Popolazione di Venezia, p. 143, n. 18. Table 2.5 Foundlings in Milan, 1660–1729 Decade

M

F

1660–69 1967 2090 1670–79 1802 1913 1680–89 1774 1816 1690–99 2616 2699 1700–09 2697 2610 1710–19 2479 2625 2250 2172 1720–29 Source: Buffini, Ospizio dei Trovatelli, vol. 1, Appendix, tables 1 and 2.

MF 4057 3715 3590 5315 5307 5104 4422

others who are still working at a later age. There are adults who have never worked and there are people who collect a regular salary but whose inclusion among the active population is the result of gentle violence wrought by statistics upon reality. To consider as active all those in an industrial society who fall in the fifteen to sixty-five age group and as dependent all the remainder, probably overestimates the percentage population which is effectively productive and thus underestimates the real dependency ratio. Productivity in industrial societies is so high that it is not difficult for such societies to afford dependency ratios of 50 to 65 percent. In fact, it is high industrial productivity that has allowed the introduction of compulsory education up to fifteen years, allows many to continue their education until the age of twenty-five or twentyeight, allows most people to retire at sixty-five, and allows many to figure in statistics of active population while doing nothing more than keep their chairs warm. The conditions prevailing in preindustrial Europe were vastly different. Those who were economically “active” worked from dawn to dusk, but given the low average of productivity they could not support many dependants. It followed that normally the few old people had to work until the end of their days (which, incidentally, was psychologically good for them), and the young people had to be set to work long before the age of fifteen. In general, child labor is described as a ghastly by-product of the Industrial Revolution. The truth is that in preindustrial society, children were as widely employed as at the time of the Industrial Revolution. An English royal statute of 1388 mentions the boys and the girls who “use to labor at the plough and cart or

46

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

other labour or service of husbandry till they be of the age of twelve years.” There was a difference, however. In preindustrial society, the mass of children was employed in the fields and, therefore, only during the summer months (hence the tradition of long school holidays during summer). With the development of the factory system, the children were employed instead the whole year around. Life in the fields was perhaps not so unhealthy as in the factories of the early Industrial Revolution, but the hardships to which children were subjected were not more tolerable. A Lombard ordinance of the late sixteenth century pointed out: At the time when the weeds are pulled from the rice patches, or other work is performed in the rice fields, some individuals called “foremen of the rice workers” manage in various ways to bring together a large number of children and adolescents against whom they practice barbarous cruelties. Having brought the children with promises and inducements to the chosen place, the foremen then treat them very badly, do not pay them, do not provide these poor creatures with the necessary food, and make them labor as slaves by beating them and treating them more harshly than galley slaves are treated, so that many of the children, although originally healthy, die miserably in the farms or in the neighboring fields. As His Excellency the Governor does not want these foremen of the rice workers to act in the future as they did in the past or to continue to slaughter children, he orders this traffic to be stopped.6 In the eighteenth century the Austrian physician J.P.Frank wrote that: In many villages the dung has to be carried on human backs up high mountains and the soil has to be scraped in a crouching position; this is the reason why most of the young people are deformed and misshapen.7 Preindustrial Europe also made widespread use of female labor in areas other than domestic service. First of all, women produced many commodities at home which today are produced industrially and exchanged on the market (bread, pasta, woollens, socks, and so on). Miniatures of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries show us, however, that women were also regularly employed in agricultural work, and documents show that, in the major manufacturing centers, women were widely employed in spinning and weaving in the workshops. In Florence, among wool weavers, women workers made up 62 percent of the labor force in 1604 and 83 percent in 1627.8 Textile manufactures were often organized on the basis of the putting-out system; that is, a merchant gave out raw wool, for example, to workers who worked in their own homes, and later collected the product from them for sale or for further processing. This system facilitated the employment of women who, between one task and another at home, busied themselves with work for the merchants. In 1631, when plague struck San Lorenzo a Campi, in Tuscany, and many houses were quarantined, a health inspector reported that he had “found a greater amount [of wool] than anticipated” and provided his superiors with a list of twelve houses in each of which a woman was working wool for some merchant.9 Women were also employed in work which we usually consider to be the preserve of men. In Toulouse, between 1365 and 1371, in the building yard of the Périgord College, men and women were employed in almost equal numbers, and the women carried stones and bricks in baskets, which they placed on their heads.10 The French miniature reproduced opposite depicts women employed in metallurgical works. In Venice women were largely employed in the arsenal in the manufacturing of sails.11 For a correct evaluation of female employment in the preindustrial era, one must also take into account wet nurses. The wet nurse is a person who, for a monetary reward, sells food (mother’s milk) and a service

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

47

(care of the infant). The economic and social importance of wet nurses in preindustrial Europe compares with the importance of the baby-food industry in our contemporary society. The “active” population can be usefully analyzed in relation to its distribution by productive activity. Generally speaking, statisticians and economists like to distinguish between three broad categories of occupations, corresponding to the three sectors of activity respectively termed primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary sector normally includes agricultural activities and forestry. Sometimes fishing and mining are also included. The secondary sector consists of manufacturing. The tertiary sector includes the “remainder.” Like all residual categories, this one is a source of ambiguity and confusion. In industrialized societies, the tertiary sector is mainly represented by the production of services such as transport, banking, insurance, the liberal professions, advertising, and the like. Some years ago, an Australian economist, Colin Clark, put forward the theory of a highly positive correlation between the general level of development of an economy and the relative size of the tertiary sector. But other economists with firsthand knowledge of certain primitive societies have shown that in a preindustrial society, the tertiary, or “residual” group, is also fairly large, with the difference that, instead of including bankers and insurance agents, it includes a picturesque variety of people with trades ranging from dealers in stolen goods to gatherers of used items. Because of the lack of statistical data, no one will ever know with any degree of accuracy what percentage of the European population was employed in the primary sector at various times before the eighteenth century. Only for the middle of the eighteenth century are there some reasonable estimates relating to England, France, Sweden, and the Republic of Venice (see Table 2.6). They are still far from precise, but they can be taken as broad indications. On this basis it does not seem far-fetched to maintain that in the centuries preceding 1700, in every European society, the percentage of the population actively employed in agriculture varied, as a rule, between 65 and 90 percent, reaching minima of 55 to 65 percent only in exceptional cases. The reason for this concentration lay in the low productivity of agriculture. Seven or eight peasants succeeded with difficulty in producing (over and above what was necessary to maintain themselves and their families) the surplus necessary to maintain two or three other people. In particularly favorable circumstances, especially when water routes made the supply of cereals from abroad economical, a country could reduce the percentage of population actively employed in agriculture to below traditional levels. A typical case is that of Venice, which regularly imported grain from Lombardy, southern Italy, and the Black Sea, while the local population was engaged in everything but agriculture. A document dating from the end of the tenth century described the Venetians with amazement: et illa gens non arat, non seminat, non vindemiat (that nation does not plow, sow, or gather vintage). Venice’s case was exceptional, but between 1400 and 1700, marked developments in maritime transport made it possible for some countries with favorable geographical positions to depend considerably on the supply of grain from abroad. This was certainly the case with seventeenth-century Holland, which imported large quantities of cereals from eastern Europe via the Baltic-Sund-North Sea, not only for her own consumption, but also for reexport. Undoubtedly seventeenth-century Holland employed a much Table 2.6 Estimates of population employed in agriculture as percentage of total labor force, about 1750 Country

Percent

England France Sweden Republic of Venice

65 76 75 75

48

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

A French metallurgical works. This sixteenth-century French miniature shows that women were employed also in metallurgical works where the skills they practiced in the kitchen were put to use in operating small furnaces.

lower percentage of its population in agriculture than other European countries did, but even in the case of the Dutch Republic it is doubtful that the percentage ever fell below 50 percent. On the other hand, if the imports of the Dutch contributed to reduce the fraction of those employed in the primary sector in certain areas of western Europe, they favored an increase of the same fraction in the countries of eastern Europe. For every ten who ate bread, seven or eight had to produce wheat, and if these seven or eight were not all in one geographical area, they had to be in another. The large percentage of the population employed in the primary sector can easily lead one to overestimate the percentage of effective labor put into this sector. For a more precise assessment of the labor input, one has to take into account the fact that, for climatic reasons, during long periods of the year the peasant did not work; he was there, but he was not active, while most handicraftsmen were active all

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

49

months of the year. Furthermore, peasants’ wives, normally regarded as being employed in agriculture, in addition to their agricultural activities generally contributed to the manufacturing sector (especially in weaving) and to the services sector (as domestic servants or as wet nurses) during the winter months. It would be a mistake to imagine that the rural population coincided with the population employed in agriculture. Country villages were home not only to peasants, but to tailors, blacksmiths, carpenters, cobblers, and sometimes barber-surgeons and schoolteachers. Borrowing Louis Malassis’s classification, in the rural world we can distinguish between the agricultural sub-set, consisting of farmers, the agro-food sub-set, consisting of agricultural workers, a manufacturing and trading superstructure that processed and distributed farm products, and lastly the rural sub-set, covering all other activities of whatever type performed in the countryside or in country villages. In the middle of the sixteenth century, in the completely rural parish of Myddle in Shropshire which had a population of about 350 souls, roughly 11 percent of the adult male population were craftsmen—smiths, carpenters, tailors, cobblers, and coopers.12 Table 2.7 shows the occupational distribution of the population in selected European cities. The first thing to emphasize is the correlation between what emerges from these figures and what has been said in the preceding chapter about the structure of demand. The bulk of demand was concentrated on food, clothing, and housing. The structure of demand influences the price structure, which, in turn, determines the structure of production. It is, therefore, not at all surprising that in Table 2.7 the three sectors—food, textiles, and construction—account for the greater part of the active population under consideration—that is, broadly, from 55 to 65 percent. Those employed in the food sector represent a relatively small percentage because the data refer to urban populations, and the bulk of those employed in the production of food lived in the country. For Gloucestershire, in 1608, a census is available that includes not only three Table 2.7 Occupational distribution of the population of selected European cities, fifteenth to seventeenth centuries

a.

Food distributio n and agricultur e b. Textiles and clothing c. Building Subtotal: a+b+c d. Metalwor k e. Woodwor k f. Leather g. Transport h. Miscellan eous i. Liberal professio ns

Verona 1409

Como 1439

Frankfurt 1440

Monza 1541

Florence 1552

Venice 1660

23

21

21

39

13

17

37

30

30

25

41

43

2 [62] 5

4 [55] 8

8 [59] 8

1 [65] 10

6 [60] 7

4 [64] 5

5

4

5

2

2

8

10 2 6

7 3 17

4 22 21

1

7 1

7 9

10

6

0.5

2

5

21.5

2

2

50

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Verona 1409

Como 1439

Frankfurt 1440

Monza 1541

Florence 1552

Venice 1660

100

100

100

100

100

100

Sources: For Verona: Tagliaferri, Economia Veronese; for Como: Mira, Aspetti dell’Economia Comasca; for Frankfurt: Bucher, Die Bevölkerung von Frankfurt; for Monza: Cipolla, Per la Storia della Popolazione Lombarda; for Florence: Battara, Popolazione di Firenze; for Venice: Beltrami, Composizione Economica e Professionale. Domestic servants were not always included in the censuses on which the table is based.

major cities (Gloucester, Tewkesbury, and Cirencester), but also the surrounding rural areas.13 Putting together both townsmen and country dwellers, one sees (Table 2.8) that those employed in the production and distribution of food represented by far the largest group (46 percent) and that the combined group of those employed in the three sectors of food, clothing, and construction represented about 73 percent of the working male population. However high the subtotals, a+b+c in Table 2.8 and a+b+c+d in Table 2.9, they still underestimate the relative importance of the mixed food-clothing-construction group, because, for example, many of those included in the category “leather” produced shoes and sandals and therefore should be added to the “clothing” sector, and many of those in the category “woodwork” produced goods and services connected with housing and therefore should be added to the “building” sector. In the discussion of the level and structure of demand, it was mentioned that the great disparity between the wealth of a few and the low average level of wages logically stimulated demand for domestic services. Kings were not the only ones to have a retinue of servants. In England in the thirteenth century the household of the Earl and Countess of Leicester counted sixty servants. The household of a minor baron like the Lord of Table 2.8 Occupational distribution of males, aged 20–60, in Gloucestershire, by percentages, 1608

a. Agriculture b. Food and drink c. Textiles and clothing d. Building Subtotal: a+b+c+d e. Metalwork f. Woodwork g. Leather h. Transport i. Professionals and gentry j. Servants k. Miscellaneous

Cities

Countryside

Cities and countryside together

4 7 26 2 [39] 6 6 5 3 6 3 32 100

50 2 23 2 [77] 3 4 1 2 3 7 3 100

46 2 23 2 [73] 3 4 1 2 3 7 7 100

Source: Tawney, “An Occupational Census,” p. 36.

Eresby included a steward, a wardrober, a wardrober’s deputy, a chaplain, an almoner, two friars, a chief buyer, a marshal, two pantrymen and butlers, two cooks and larderers, a saucer, a poulterer, two ushers and chandlers, a baker, a brewer, a potter and two farriers, and each had their own boy helpers. In the monastery

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

51

of Evesham, in England in 1096, there were fifty-two servants for sixty-six monks and the former figure did not include gardeners, a blacksmith, a mason and other laborers of various kinds. In the monastery of Meaux (England) in 1393, twenty-six monks were served by forty domestics. Domestic service was abundantly available also to the middle and lower-middle classes. A Florentine census of 1551 shows that only 54 percent of the families of Florence were without domestic servants living with them (see Table 2.9). Domestic personnel are not always easily pinpointed in the demographic and fiscal records of the time, because either the listings in the documents were limited to heads of families, or the service staff was mixed in with members of the family. In some urban censuses, however, domestic servants were listed separately. Whenever the available figures allow some calculations, the result is that in the European cities of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries domestic servants represent about 10 percent of the total population, which means about 17 percent of the population in the age group fifteen to sixty-five (see Table 2.10). Table 2.9 Percentage distribution of families in Florence (Italy) according to number of servants, 1551 % families With more than 5 servants With 2 to 5 servants With 1 servant Without servants

5 18 23 54

Source: Battara, La Popolazione di Firenze, p. 70. Table 2.10 Domestic servants as a percentage of total population in selected European cities, 1448–1696 City

Year

%

Freiburg Bern Nuremberg Basel Ypres Parma Florence Venice Bologna Rostock Bologna Florence Venice Münster Lille Ypres London (40 parishes) Dunkirk

1448 1448 1449 1497 1506 1545 1551 1581 1581 1594 1624 1642 1642 1685 1688 1689 1695 1696

10 9 19 18 10 16 17 7 11 19 10 9 9 15 4 7 20 6

52

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Devoutness and superstition strengthened each other in creating and supporting the demand for religious services. On the other hand, wide-spread devoutness led many individuals of both sexes into the ranks of the clergy. Other factors also favored the increase in the ecclesiastical population. The institution of the dowry was an incubus for most families and a danger to the integrity of the family inheritance. In Europe to solve the problem the well-to-do frequently confined their daughters to a convent. Table 2.11 provides some data on the ecclesiastical population in selected European cities from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries. Viewing a region as a whole, one finds that in 1745 the Great Duchy of Tuscany had 890,605 inhabitants, including Clerics: Priests: Monks: Hermits: Nuns:

3,955 8,095 5,482 168 9,736

The 27,436 ecclesiastics represented about 3 percent of the total population.14 Beloch has estimated that, at the middle of the eighteenth century, in all of Italy the ecclesiastical population represented about 2 percent of the total population.15 In 1591, Spain, with a total population of about 8.5 million people, had about 41, 000 priests, 25,000 friars, and 25,000 nuns.16 Thus the clergy represented about 1.1 percent of the total population. About France we know that in Alsace and the area of Alençon, at the end of the seventeenth century, of a total of 409,822 inhabitants the clerical population numbered 4,609 individuals, or about 1.1 percent. In Brittany in 1696, the ecclesiastical population amounted to 18,889 in a total population of 1,654, 699—again about 1.1 percent. In the area of Caen, out of 609,203 inhabitants, the clergy totaled 5,225— that is, nearly 1 percent.17 In England and Wales in 1377 the priests numbered about 24,900 and the monks and nuns about 10,600. In a total population of some 2.2 million people the clergy represented about 1.5 percent. In the first decades of the sixteenth century in England and Wales there were about 9, 300 monks and nuns in a population of approximately 3.5 million inhabitants.18 In Poland around 1500 there were about 6,900 monks and nuns and about 15,000 priests. The population of Poland numbered about 4.5 million, thus the clergy represented about 0.5 percent.19 In considering these figures one has to bear in mind that, given the age composition of preindustrial populations, 1 or 2 percent of the total population meant respectively 1.5 or 3 percent of the population above age fifteen. From an economic point of view the clergy can be seen as producers of a particular type of service, and, inasmuch as there is a demand for this service (a demand which, like all other producers, the clergy does its best to stimulate) the clergy have the right to be considered part of the economically active population. In most respects the contribution of the clergy to a community is not different from that of psychiatrists in modern societies, and it has been observed that in countries where people have no recourse to the confessor, they end up by having recourse to the psychiatrist (with the disadvantage that individually they pay much more for the service). In addition, in preindustrial Europe, and especially in rural areas, the parish priest often also performed those functions which we now regard as belonging to the schoolteacher and the doctor.

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

53

Table 2.11 Ecclesiastial population in selected European cities, 1400–1700 City

Date

Total population (thousands) (a)

Toulouse Frankfurt Nuremberg Bologna Venice Naples Besançon Rome Cremona Florence Pisa Bologna Venice Siena Pistoia Besançon

c. 1400 1400 1449 1570 1581 1599 c. 1600 1603 1621 1622 1622 1624 1642 1670 1672 1709

c. 23 10 20 62 135 233 11 105 40 66 15 62 120 16 8 17

No. of priests (b)

No. of monks & nuns (c)

586

3,553 5,702

1241 150

4,512 1,852 4,917 951 3,431 4,171 1,755 726 571

138 735

275

Total no. of priests, monks & nuns (d)

Clergy as % of total population

c. 1,000 225 250 3,310 4,139

0.4

2.6 2.4

600 5,753 2,002

1.2 0.4

3,569 4,906

0.2 0.6

846

1.6

4.3 4.6 7.5 6.3 5.5 3.5 10.9 9.1 3.4

4.3 2.3 1.3 5.3 3.1 5.5 5.5 5.0

5.7 4.1

5.0

One of the major drawbacks of traditional textbooks is that they identify the active population of preindustrial Europe with merchants, craftsmen, landlords, and peasants and they neglect professionals, in particular notaries, lawyers, and physicians. There was considerable demand from the private sector as well as from the public sector for the services of professionals, and this aspect of the problem has been discussed above in Chapter 1. Tables 2.12 and 2.13 provide some data relating to the size of the major professions in selected European cities. The Italian cities of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries stand out for the size of the professional group and especially for the size of the notarial profession. Between the tenth and the fourteenth centuries the notaries constituted the bulk of the bureaucracy of the Italian cities. Table 2.13 shows also that the number of physicians was generally relatively higher in Italian cities than in other European towns, at least until the end of the seventeenth century. Whether this was beneficial to people’s health is another matter altogether. Most likely it was harmful,20 but if people were prepared to pay for doctors’ services, the supply of such services satisfied psychological needs, and, therefore, the availability of doctors, regardless of what they were able to do, must be put on the same plane as that of priests and hermits. From the economic and social points of view, the importance of notaries,

54

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Table 2.12 Number of notaries, lawyers, and physicians in relation to total population in selected Italian cities, 1268– 1675 Per 10,000 inhabitants City

Year

Notaries

Verona Bologna Milan Prato Florence Verona, Pisa Como Verona, Verona Verona Verona Carmagnola Florence Pisa Rome Rome

1268 1283 1288 1298 1338 1409 1428 1439 1456 1502 1545 1605 1621 1630 1630 1656 1675

124 212 250 278 55 70 90 17 54 40 26 8 21

Lawyers

Physicians

20

5

9 6

3

12 4 6 7 17 14

2 9 5 5 4 3 5 9 12 13

Source: Cipolla, “The Professions,” p. 43.

Table 2.13 Number of physicians in relation to total population in selected European cities, 1575–1641 City

Year

Physicians

Population (thousands)

Doctors per 10,000 inhabitants

Palermo Florence Pisa Pistoia Rome Rome Antwerp Rouen Lyons Paris Amsterdam

1575 1630 1630 1630 1656 1675 1585 1605 1620 1626 1641

22 33 12 5 140 164 18 16 20 85 50

70 80 13 9 120 130 80 80 90 300 135

3.1 4.1 9.2 5.5 11.6 12.6 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.1 3.7

Source: Cipolla, Public Health, Chapter 2.

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

55

lawyers, and doctors can hardly be exaggerated and most certainly it was far out of proportion to their numbers. To begin with, members of the medical, legal, and notarial professions usually belonged to the small circle of the well-to-do, many of them as affluent as the rich merchants. Enjoying high incomes, physicians, lawyers, and notaries originated a demand for distinctive clothing, beautiful houses, and land, as well as for books, entertainment, and educational services for their children. Moreover, physicians, lawyers, and notaries gave the middle class a strength, respectability, and prestige that affluence alone could never have procured.21 Economic history, if it is to make sense, must include social history, taking account of values and factors which cannot be measured in solely economic terms. The history of the professions is an essential part of the story of “intangible” values. Scholarly prestige, restrictive practices through the enforcement of licensing, relatively high personal income—all these factors individually reinforced each other and in combination made possible the social ascent of the professionals. In this respect medieval and Renaissance Europe stands out as a unique example in world history. In other parts of the world, such as China, the providers of medical and legal services never succeeded in asserting themselves socially as well as economically. In certain other societies they did, but as members of a priestly caste. Only in western Europe, during the Middle Ages, did the professionals clearly separate themselves from the clergy and still move to the higher steps of the social ladder. The preeminence acquired in medieval western Europe by the professionals is at the origin of many institutions and characteristics of our industrial societies. Obsessed with merchants, craftsmen, landowners, and peasants, economic historians have usually ignored the representatives of “the oldest profession in the world.” Medieval canonists were more realistic: Thomas de Chobham had no doubts—the prostitutes work, he maintained, even if their work is ignominious. A distinction must obviously be made between general prostitution and legalized prostitution. As regards the first, one cannot hope to have adequate information, but as regards the second, enough is known to justify the statement that, squalid though it may be, this sector always had great economic relevance. Moreover, it is easy to show that there is some positive correlation between the economic development of a given center and the presence of women of easy virtue. The fairs that were held in the province of Scania (southern Sweden) between August 15 and November 9 in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (the famous nundinae Schanienses) were well known not only for the number of merchants and fishermen who met there, but also for the number of fahrende Frauen.22 In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the two major centers of prostitution in Europe were Venice and Rome, a primacy which, with the Industrial Revolution, was to be taken over by London and Paris. The game-some ladies of Venice, called courtesans, were famous for their refinement and culture and, as Thomas Coryat wrote, “the name of a Cortezan of Venice is famous all over the Christendome.”23 In the sixteenth century, Montaigne, who was a great gossip as well as a great mind, relates that the Cardinal d’Este regularly traveled to Abano for the baths, but even more to visit the “lovelies” of the Serenissima.24 In fact, the courtesans were one of Venice’s main attractions for tourists and traders, and the English travelers of the early seventeenth century have left valuable information on the subject. To establish numbers of prostitutes is a difficult task. First of all, the occupation does not lend itself to an exact definition, because between the two extremes of “honest woman” and “common prostitute” there is a vast range of intermediate conditions with blurred outlines. Second, anyone wishing to make a survey of the subject inevitably finds himself faced with reticence of every possible kind. Finally, the topic is such as to lend itself easily to the most fanciful tales. In Florence in the sixteenth century it was held that “about 8,000 courtesans” plied their trade,25 but the 1551 census recorded only three.26 The first figure is certainly an exaggeration, but the second does not reflect the truth, as witnessed by a poem of 1533 that lists forty women of easy virtue, describing them by name, surname, and noting their various qualities.27 In sixteenth-

56

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

century Venice, those interested in “all that the brigand apple brought” could buy at little expense a booklet containing the “tariff of all prostitutes in which one finds the price and the qualities of all courtesans of Venice.” According to two chroniclers of the early sixteenth century, there were then in Venice about 12, 000 official prostitutes, but the figure is probably an exaggeration.28 In Rome, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it was said that there were 10,000 to 40,000 prostitutes.29 Possibly this figure too was an exaggeration. Official figures are of course, as Table 2.14 indicates, much lower, ranging from 7 to 9 per thousand of total population. In assessing such figures, however, one has to bear in mind that in Rome, with its exceptional preponderance of priests, monks, and cardinals, women were underrepresented. In 1600, out of 109,729 inhabitants, there were only 46,596 females, and the women in the fifteen to sixty-five age group must have numbered approximately 30,000; thus the 604 women of easy virtue listed in the census of that year represented about 2 percent of the adult female population of Rome. For a holy city, the percentage looks high, especially if one considers that the figures refer only to those prostitutes who were officially recognized as such. The economic importance of this social group was more than proportional to its numerical size. Thomas Coryat, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, wrote of Venice: Some of them [the courtesans] having scraped together so much pelfe by their sordid facultie as doth maintaine them well in their old age: for many of them are as rich as ever was Rhadope in Egypt, Flora in Rome or Lais in Corinth. One example whereof is Margarita Aemiliana that built a faire monastery of Augustinian monkes.30 About the same time, Fynes Moryson wrote: Each cortizan hath commonly her lover whom she mantaynes, her balordo or gull who principally mantaynes her, besydes her customers at large, and her bravo to fight the quarrells. The richer sorte dwell in fayre hired howses and have their owne servants but the common sorte lodge with bandes called ruffians, to whome in Venice they pay of their gayne the fifth parte, as foure shillings in twenty, paying Table 2.14 Number of officially recognized prostitutes in relation to total population of Rome, 1598–1675 Year

Total population

1598 97,743 1600 109,729 1625 115,444 1650 126,192 131,912 1675 Source: Schiavoni, “Demografia di Roma.”

Prostitutes

Prostitutes per 1,000 inhabitants

760 604 940 1,148 889

8 6 8 9 7

besydes for their beds, linnen and feasting, and when they are past gayning much, they are turned out to begg or turne bandes or servants. Since official prostitutes were taxed for their trade, in the larger towns they represented an important source of income for the public finances. According to Robert Dallington, at the end of the sixteenth century the Grand Duke of Tuscany “hath an income out of the brothel stewes which is thought at the least thirty

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57

thousand crownes a yeare in Florence onely.”31 In Rome, the attempt made by Pius V in 1566 to expel prostitutes from the Holy City failed because, in the words of the Venetian ambassador, Paolo Tiepolo, to send them away would be too big a thing, considering that, between them and others who for various reasons would follow them, more than 25,000 people would leave this city; and tax-farmers in Rome let it be understood that (if the prostitutes were expelled) they would either renounce their contracts or ask for a compensation amounting to 20,000 ducats a year.32 Italy has always been the country of the oddest compromises. We have already seen in the passage by Coryat that a monastery of the Augustinians in Venice was built with funds provided by a prostitute. In Rome, prostitutes were under obligation to bequeath part of their possessions to the Monastery of the Converted. When Pius V dedicated himself to the building and beautifying of the Civitas Pia, one of the expedients to which he had recourse in order to raise funds was to release the prostitutes from the obligation to bequeath part of their possessions to the monastery as long as they contributed at least 500 scudi toward his holy building.33 As has already been said, it would be wrong to identify the rural population wholly with the agricultural population, and the urban population entirely with the active population in the secondary and tertiary sectors. In the suburbs of the cities lived laborers who grew vegetables or performed other essentially agricultural activities. On the other hand, one encountered artisans and a few professional people also in small rural and semi-rural communities. As Christopher Dyer pointed out, the frequent finds of spindle whorls in excavations on village sites show that spinning yarn with a distaff was an almost universal practice among peasant women. Large-scale industrial employment was often localized, like the tin-mining and smelting which occupied as many as one in ten of the population of Cornwall. The woods themselves provided an environment for a wide range of crafts, for potters, glass-makers, coopers, turners, wheelers, cartwrights, arrow-makers, bow-makers, and charcoal burners. In the village of Lomello (Lombardy) around 1435, out of a population of about 500 or 600, there were at least two tailors, one weaver, a schoolteacher, and other artisans.34 In 1541 in the area of Monza (Lombardy), in the rural centers numbering fewer than 200 inhabitants each, those engaged in agriculture made up about 75 percent of the population; the remaining 25 percent consisted of craftsmen, traders, cart drivers, boatmen, and the like.35 In the wholly rural Shropshire parish of Myddle (England) with a total population of around 350 in the mid-sixteenth century, about 11 percent of its adult male population were craftsmen—blacksmiths, carpenters, coopers, tailors, shoemakers, though, as was normal, many such men were small husbandmen as well.36 In the small rural parish of Ealing in Middlesex (England) in 1599, out of 426 inhabitants there were three tailors, one smith, one carpenter, one wheelwright, and four clerks.37 In France in 1691 in the small rural parish of Laguiole, among 990 people were found one lawyer, six barber-surgeons, one schoolteacher, five master cobblers and eight journeyman cobblers, four master tailors and three journeyman tailors, one architect, three master masons and three journeyman masons, two carpenters, eight weavers, one glazier, three locksmiths, one wool-draper, and other craftsmen.38 The presence of skilled labor both in the cities and in the countryside was a decisive factor for the success of manufacturing activity. Current economic analysis tends to stress the importance of human capital, but this is not a modern discovery. If anything, it is a rediscovery. In the Middle Ages and in the Renaissance, the relevance of human capital to economic prosperity was taken for granted. Governments and princes were active in trying to attract artisans and technicians and in preventing their emigration. We shall return to this point in Part II, when dealing with the spread of technology. Here, however, it is worth mentioning a significant example.

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In 1230, the Commune of Bologna launched a definite policy of economic development. The idea was to encourage the setting up and development of textile manufactures, particularly wool and silk. To achieve its aim, the Commune announced that those artisans who would move to Bologna and start an enterprise would enjoy the following advantages: a. they would receive free, from the city, a tiratorium (or the equivalent value of 4 lire) and two looms (or the equivalent value of 2 lire each) b. a loan of 50 lire for five years free of interest, to cover the expenses for the initial installation, the cost of raw materials, upkeep of the family, and so forth c. exemption from all taxes for fifteen years d. immediate grant of citizenship In the two years 1230–31, 150 artisans with their families and their assistants settled in Bologna. (At that time Bologna numbered at most 25,000 inhabitants.) In its undertaking, the Commune of Bologna freely distributed some nine thousand lire of the time, a very large sum.39 The operation was repeated in 1385 and between 1385 and 1389 more than 200 craftsmen (not counting their relatives) migrated to Bologna. Bologna’s case is particularly interesting because of the early period in which it took place, because of the size of the operation in both human and monetary terms, and for the excellent documentation which has survived but, as we shall see in Chapter 6, one encounters many similar cases in the following centuries. They show that everywhere in Europe public powers were very much aware of how important the availability of skilled labor was to economic progress. The number employed in a particular sector of the economy tells us something, but not everything, about the effective quantity and quality of the labor in that sector, both in an absolute sense and in relation to labor inputs in other sectors. A lot depends on the number of working days actually put in, the number of working hours per working day, the physical and psychological condition of the workers, and the workers’ level of education and technical training. A Lombard document dated 1595 recorded that the year consists of 365 days, but 96 are holy days, and thus one is left with 269. Of these, a great many are lost, mostly in wintertime and even at other times, because of rain and snow. Another part of the year is lost because everyone does not always find work, except in the three months of June, July and August.40 The document in question refers to agricultural labor and points out that religious festivities and climatic and seasonal conditions had a marked effect on the amount of labor actually put into productive activities. The holidays were traditionally numerous. The above document cites a total of ninety-six a year in Lombardy. They numbered eighty to ninety a year in sixteenth-century Venice, eighty-seven in sixteenthcentury Florence, and one hundred and forty in Prato.41 In Protestant Europe the Reformation noticeably reduced their number.42 Climatic conditions and seasonal fluctuations in demand hit agricultural and building activities especially hard. Consequently, the percentages of those employed in agriculture and construction tend to overestimate the proportion of labor inputs in these sectors in relation to labor inputs in other sectors of the economy.43 We know very little about the physical and psychological conditions of the labor force before the Industrial Revolution. We do know that the mass lived in a state of undernourishment. This gave rise, among other things, to serious forms of avitaminosis. Widespread filth was also the cause of troublesome

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and painful skin diseases. To this must be added in certain areas the endemic presence of malaria, or the deleterious effects of a restricted matrimonial selection, which gave rise to cretinism. As late as 1835 L.R.Villermé wrote that in France out of 343 recruits from the lower orders, only 100 were fit for military service.44 To all this one should add the effects of occupational diseases due to the appallingly unhealthy conditions under which certain trades were conducted and to the handling of toxic substances. Separately or together, these factors had a negative influence on the quantity and quality of effective labor inputs. On the other hand, the beauty and perfection of many products of European preindustrial craftsmanship give the inescapable impression that the craftsman of the time found in his work a satisfaction and a sense of dignity which are, alas, foreign to the alienating assembly lines of the modern industrial complex. Little or nothing is known of the level of education of the masses before the Industrial Revolution. The urban revolution of the eleventh and twelfth centuries ushered in a new era with the introduction of public schools, and many a city witnessed a noticeable development of elementary education. In Florence, around 1330, Giovanni Villani recorded: “There are from 8,000 to 10,000 boys and girls who are at school learning how to read and from 1,000 to 1,200 boys who learn abacus and arithmetic” in the schools.45 We know from other sources that Florentine youths went to school to learn reading and writing at the age of five or six. At the age of eleven, those who were both willing and able continued their education in one of the six schools of arithmetic where they remained for two to three more years. About 1338, Florence had a population of roughly 90,000 inhabitants. Given the age structure of populations in those days, the age group between five and fourteen must have consisted of about 23,000 children. If Villani’s data are correct, more than 40 percent went to school. A document dated 1313 shows that in Florence it was taken for granted that an artisan should be able to “write, read, and keep accounts,” and it is known that a good many humble Florentine artisans wrote extremely readable, and, for us, instructive, family histories.46 Florence was in the vanguard of Europe in the fourteenth century. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, one city after another followed her example, but the spread of elementary education among the masses long remained a typically urban characteristic. In the Protestant countries the Reformation succeeded in spreading the rudiments of reading and writing among the rural population, but in Catholic countries the bulk of the peasants remained illiterate until the modern era. About the middle of the seventeenth century, less than 50 percent of the adult population of the major western European cities were illiterate; elsewhere, the figure ranged from 50 to 95 percent.47 These observations lead us to discuss education and professional training in an economic context. To raise and educate a child costs money. If the young person is of working age and is instead sent to school, the person also costs the economy what he does not produce. That which the young person could produce if he were sent to work and does not because he is at school is income forgone for the economy and represents an opportunity cost. These costs are borne by the family and the society, in expectation of future incomes. What is spent in raising and educating a person is a form of investment, which is directly comparable to the building of a factory. While it is being built, the factory, too, does not produce and the cost of construction is borne in expectation of future incomes. In the training of a person, as in the building of a factory, the investment can be a good one or a bad one. A student who studies little and badly during his school years is the equivalent of a factory which is badly built: the defects will become evident when production starts. The poverty of preindustrial societies did not allow for large investment in human capital. A few years at school were a luxury that not many could afford, especially in the country. Apprenticeship offered the advantage that the young people produced while they learned; thus the opportunity cost of their education was practically eliminated. In fact, all professional and technical training was given by way of apprenticeship.

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In Venice, at the beginning of the seventeenth century, the ages for acceptance into apprenticeship in certain trades varied from ten to twelve years (see Table 2.15). The average duration of apprenticeship varied according to trades; for instance: victualling and sale of products of the soil: 5 years production of clothing or personal services: 3 years other trades: 5 years Table 2.15 Age limits for acceptance into apprenticeship in selected trades in seventeenth-century Venice Age limit Trade Tinkers Dyers Weavers Stonecutters Caulkers Painters Goldsmiths Sausage makers

Minimum

Maximum

12 11 10 14 7 16

16 20 17 13 20 16 18 18

Source: Beltrami, Popolazione di Venezia, pp. 198–99.

The guilds regulated professional education in every detail, and in some cases, to the benefit of the children of their own members, they even organized school courses to teach the rudiments of reading and writing.48 Originally, training for the higher professions—jurisprudence, medicine, and notarial art—also took place through various forms of apprenticeship. But from the end of the twelfth century, and more decidedly in the thirteenth century, special schools were created, from which the universities emerged. The main trouble with employment statistics is that they encourage us to regard people as if they were potatoes. Taking account of a worker’s education and his psychological and physical conditions is a step in the right direction, but a very small one. In any statistics on employment, Michel-angelo would figure as “sculptor: 1.” Or if the statistics were fairly advanced, he might be slotted into the category of “artisans (or artists) with more than 10 years’ education.” And that would be the end of it. The statistics we possess leave out the most important feature of work, i.e. the human element, the most profound meaning of which cannot be measured in quantitative terms—or, if it can, we have not yet found out how. Michelangelo is an extreme case but there is a world of difference between work that is prepared and executed with care and efficiency and work that is slapdash and aimless. We take work to cover not just unskilled laboring but any and every kind of productive activity. Anyone who has had the opportunity to compare developed and underdeveloped societies will readily acknowledge that the difference between the two lies in the value of “human capital” in both the upper and the lower classes. The trouble that besets an underdeveloped country is not so much the lack of capital or the backwardness of technological knowledge as the poor quality of the human component: an underdeveloped country has entrepreneurs who are of little value, workers worth even less, teachers who are incompetent, students who laze around, rulers who don’t know how to rule, and citizens devoid of any civic sense. This is why a country remains underdeveloped. A country’s shortage of capital

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61

and its technological and administrative backwardness are more a consequence than a cause of its underdevelopment. Education plays an important part in any upgrading of human capital. But education is not enough. For a society to function properly, psychological and ethical qualities are also essential: a spirit of co-operation, a sense of honesty, tolerance, self-sacrifice, initiative, perseverance, intellectual curiosity, a willingness to experiment, etc. The analysis of these factors is one of the most difficult and neglected areas in the social sciences. Econometric techniques are particularly ill-suited to this kind of investigation. And other types of analysis tend to be terribly vague and inconclusive. One of the fundamental characteristics of the urban societies of preindustrial Europe was the tendency toward association, which manifested itself increasingly from the end of the twelfth century. If in the preceding centuries men had sought protection and the safeguard of their own interests in a relationship of subordination to the powerful (feudalism), with the emergence of urban societies the safeguard of personal interests was sought mainly in associations among equals. This was the essence of the urban revolution. The commune was initially nothing more than the sworn association of citizens—the super-association, above and beyond the particular associations which took the name of Arti, guilds, companies, confraternities, societies, or universities. Class and group conflicts played a fundamental part in determining who could and who could not form a guild, and the dominance or decline of a group signified the opportunity (or lack of it) for rival groups to unite in a legally recognized guild. Within the guilds, a definite order of precedence faithfully reflected the distribution of power. For the whole of the thirteenth century, merchant guilds remained unchallenged in dominating the European scene. In the ensuing centuries, various occupational categories gradually acquired the right to constitute themselves into autonomous associations, and the craft guilds became increasingly influential. The guilds satisfied a number of requirements. Among the various tasks of the guilds, there was usually that of collective organization of religious ceremonies, charity, and mutual assistance. These tasks were not a smoke-screen. For a craftsman of the time, participation by his own guild in the town’s procession in honor of the patron saint or the Virgin Mary was as important as, if not more important than, a discussion of wages and production. And the guilds played an important role in providing social assistance to their own members and education for their members’ children as well as in setting and enforcing quality controls in production. All these functions should not be underestimated. But neither should one underestimate the fact that one of the fundamental aims of all guilds was to regulate and reduce competition among their own members. With regard to the supply of labor, a guild aimed at exercising strict control over the admission of new members and their entry into the labor market. On the other hand, when competition among employers was in question, the corporate body always served to control and strictly regulate competition among its members as far as demand for labor was concerned. Consequently, in any study of the level and structure of employment and wages in centuries preceding the eighteenth, the action of the guilds must occupy a salient position. CAPITAL Physical capital is represented by goods which are produced by people and are not consumed, being either used as productive inputs for further production or stored for future consumption. Capital can be usefully divided into fixed capital and working capital.

62

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Fixed capital consists of those economic goods produced by people which are repeatedly used in the course of a number of productive cycles. Machine tools are the classical type of fixed capital, but the shovel, the plow, and the barrel, as well as the ship, the cart, and the bridge are also fixed capital. Sir John Hicks wrote a few years ago: What is the essential mark by which we are to distinguish modern industry from the handicraft industry?… This is a clue to the distinction between the two kinds of industry for which we are looking. The capital of a merchant is, mainly, working or circulating capital—capital that is turned over. A particular merchant may indeed employ some fixed capital, an office, a warehouse, a shop or a ship; but these are no more than containers for the stock of goods on which his business centres. Any fixed capital that he uses is essentially peripheral. As long as industry remained at the handicraft stage the position of the craftsman or artizan was not so very different. He did indeed have tools, but the tools which he used were not usually very valuable; the turnover of his material was the centre of his business. It is at the point when fixed capital moves, or begins to move, into the central position that the revolution occurs. In the days before modern industry, the only fixed capital goods that were being used, and which absorbed in their production any considerable quantity of resources, were buildings and vehicles (especially ships).49 The thesis that fixed capital acquired a degree of importance only with the Industrial Revolution and, even then, only in the final stages of the Revolution, has never been questioned and has, indeed, been reasserted emphatically by a number of scholars.50 However, even as a first and rough approximation, the statement needs qualifications. Fixed capital was admittedly of negligible importance before the eleventh century when all forms of capital were in any case in painfully short supply. Documents of the eighth century clearly suggest that large estates suffered from a shortage of livestock.51 In the ninth century, of the twenty-nine farms of the Abbey of St Germain des Prés outside Paris, only eight had water mills (though these totaled fifty-nine); and at the beginning of the tenth century, the records of the Abbey of St Bertin referred to the construction of a mill as an exceptional and admirable event.52 From the eleventh century onward, however, things changed considerably. Water mills and windmills proliferated and became a common feature of the rural landscape. Toward the end of the eleventh century in England, more than 5,600 mills were in operation and in some areas, such as Surrey, there was a mill for every thirty-five recorded families.53 In 1350, in the territory of Pistoia (Italy), there was approximately one mill for every twenty-five recorded families.54 In the course of time, not only did the number of mills continue to increase, but their average power per unit also increased. Toward the end of the eighteenth century, more than half a million water mills operated in western Europe, and many of them had more than one wheel. Besides water mills and windmills, other buildings related to agriculture grew both in number and in size in the centuries following the year 1000. Barns deserve special mention because many of them not only represented a sizeable investment (see Table 2.16) but were built so beautifully that they are no less relevant to the history of architecture than castles and cathedrals.55 As buildings grew in number and in size, tools were improved and were produced in larger quantities.56 Most important of all, livestock became more abundant. Horses, cattle, and sheep were a special kind of fixed capital. (I call it “a special kind of capital” because livestock can be consumed as food whenever

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

63

necessary or convenient.) On nine Ramsey Abbey manors in eastern England, draft animals increased by 20 to 30 percent between the end of the eleventh and territory of Chieri (Piedmont) over an area of about 20, 000 acres, there were the mid-twelfth century.57 At the end of the thirteenth century in the four cattle and six sheep for every 100 acres.58 In 1336 on about 1,900 acres owned by Merton College (England), of which about two-thirds were arable land, there were four horses, twelve cattle, and sixty sheep for 100 acres.59 In 1530 six country parishes in Brianza, north of Milan (Italy), there were 11,058 persons above seven years of age, 762 children below seven years of age, and 1,823 animals. For every 100 persons older than seven, there were, therefore, about seven children and sixteen animals.60 In 1574 on property belonging to the Hospital at Imola (Italy), there were 96 persons. Of these, 33 were workingmen who made use of fifty-one head of cattle and thirtyseven sheep, with a ratio of cattle to laborers of about 1.5 to one.61 An inquiry made in 1471 in the regions of Grasse, Castellane, Guillaume, and Table 2.16 Volume of selected barns built in the thirteenth century cubic ft holsey (Berkshire) Beaulieu-St Leonard (Hampshire) Vaulerand (France)

482,680 526,590 869,980

Source: Horn and Born, The Barns, p. 41.

Saint-Paul-de-Vence in Haute-Provence (France) yielded the following results:62

Totals Averages: Per locality Per household

No. of localities No. of households No. of donkeys, No. of sheep and mules, and horses goats 70 3,167 2,494 114, 837 45

36 0.8

1,641 36

Head of cattle 5,498 78 2

For the period 1560–1600, the following estimates have been calculated for various parts of England:63

Northern Lowlands Northern Highlands Eastern England Midland Forest Area

Percentage of peasant laborers possessing

No. of cattle per 100 laborers

cows, calves, heifers 74 84 82 92

227 197 122 142

other cattle 26 16 18 8

As one can see from the figures quoted above, the ratios of animals to land, of animals to laborers, and of animals to population varied greatly from one area to another and from one period to another. But always and everywhere, animals were a form of fixed capital which was far from being “peripheral” to the productive system. Toward the end of the seventeenth century, William Petty calculated that, if the value of all agricultural land in England could be estimated at about £144 million, the animals could be valued at a quarter of that sum, that is, at about £36 million.64 In many areas, livestock was much more abundant in the

64

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Middle Ages and the Renaissance than in modern times. For six of the seventy localities in Haute-Provence covered by the aforementioned inquiry of 1471, the following comparison has been made:65

in 1471 in 1956

No. of households 863 12,834

No. of sheep and goats 25,050 471

Head of cattle 1,451 407

Horses, cattle, and sheep were capital not only for agriculture. Sheep provided the raw material for the woollens industry. Horses and oxen were indispensable for transport. Also, the military sector relied heavily on this sort of capital. From the fifteenth century onward, armies tended to move with greater speed as horses and mules gradually replaced oxen as a means of transport in military operations. As late as the second half of the nineteenth century in several European countries, the census tabulations included not only people, but also horses and mules; and the object of the enumeration was essentially military. Toward 1845, the number of horses and mules available in the major European nations was estimated as shown in Table 2.17. As mentioned above livestock as a form of capital has the advantage that when necessary or advisable it can be killed and consumed as food: its cost is not all sunk cost. On the other hand, livestock as a form of capital had the disadvantage of being highly vulnerable. In medieval and Renaissance Europe, epizootic diseases were no less frequent or disastrous than epidemics.66 At times, these diseases assumed international political significance, as when in Pannonia, in 791, nine-tenths of Charlemagne’s horses died and the Frankish king found himself in great military difficulties.67 More often, an epizooty was of purely local significance, but not infrequently it brought tragedy to entire regions. In 1275, “A rich man of France brought into Northumberland a Spanish ewe, as big as a calfe of two yeares, which ewe being rotten infected so the country that it spread over all the realme; this plague of murrain continued for 28 years.”68 Between 1713 and 1769 in Frisia, major epizootics caused the following losses:69 December 1713–February 1715:66,000 head of cattle November 1744–August 1745:135,000 head of cattle November 1747–April 1748:23,000 head of cattle May 1769–December 1769:98,000 head of cattle When cattle died, the consequences for the economy of the time were comparable with the consequences of large fires which would destroy machines and power stations in a modern industrial economy. Moreover, replacement was made difficult by the fact that among horses, cattle, and Table 2.17 Number of horses and mules in selected European countries, about 1845 Country

Horses and mules

Austria (Empire) France England Italy Prussia Russia

2.7 million 2.7 million 2.3 million 1.0 million 1.5 million 8.0 million

THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION

Country

65

Horses and mules

Source: Balbi, L’Austria, p. 165 and Annuario Statistico Italiano, 1857, p. 554.

sheep, sterility was very widespread. For the territory of Montaldeo (Italy), a survey of forty-nine cows during the period 1594–1601 shows an index of sterility of about 50 percent, with only twenty-five calves born; the sterility of sheep in Montaldeo was even higher, about 70 to 75 percent.70 Despite being small, hungry, and often sterile, horses, oxen, and sheep were an extremely valuable form of capital. Supply was limited and demand was high. In Montaldeo in the seventeenth century, one had to accumulate the wages of 100 ten-to-twelve-hour work days to buy one cow. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, it was necessary to sell over 50 liters of wine to buy one small pig.71 The value of this form of capital was a temptation to the mass of the poor. Fernand Braudel wrote that “… in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century, thieves and horse-thieves were a class of their own.”72 The fact is that cattle thieves were a thriving and numerous class not only in England, but in all European countries. Contrary to what one would expect, fixed capital was not peripheral, even in areas of the tertiary sector. A study of fifteenth-century Lombard pharmacies shows that their working capital amounted to only 30–35 percent of the investment; fixed capital in the form of furniture, vases, pestles and mortars, glasses, distillers, condensers and the like amounted to 65–70 percent.73 In the transport sector, one must distinguish between waterborne transport and overland transport, and for the latter between long-distance and local transport. In waterborne transport, boats and ships were fixed capital. In long-distance overland transportation until the sixteenth century, horses and mules were the predominant form of fixed capital employed—not until the second half of the sixteenth century were there enough roads to allow the extensive use of carts and carriages for long-distance travel. On the other hand, carts were used very early for local overland transport, especially for agricultural products. From whatever point of view one looks at things, fixed capital, in the form of draft animals, beasts of burden, ships, boats, carts and carriages, was not peripheral in transport services. The thesis that fixed capital had a purely peripheral importance in the productive process before the Industrial Revolution is most valid for the manufacturing sector. As discussed above, when, in 1230–31 the Commune of Bologna invited a number of foreign artisans to set up manufactures of silk and wool, the city administration provided each artisan with a tiratorium worth 4 Bologna lire of the time and two looms worth 2 lire each. The fixed capital considered necessary for a productive unit was, therefore, valued at 8 lire. At the same time, the Commune loaned each artisan 50 lire for the expense of setting up and starting the plant, for raw materials and for the upkeep of his family. The artisans undertook to repay the 50-lire loan over a period of five years. This fact suggests that, under normal conditions, the fixed capital necessary to an enterprise, valued as we have seen at 8 lire, could be amortized in less than a year. Other examples of this kind can be easily assembled, but only with some qualifications. In the case of the textile manufactures of Bologna, the productive process was not entirely completed in the houses of the artisans. From an early date, mills were used for the fulling of cloth, and they represented a considerable investment in fixed capital. Over the centuries in Bologna itself, special mills were built for the manufacture of silk. By the seventeenth century these mills had reached an exceptional level of mechanical sophistication and represented an important investment. The mill set up in early eighteenth-century England by Sir Thomas Lombe in imitation of the Bologna silk mills consisted of 25,586 wheels and 97,746 pieces and could produce 73,726 yards of silk yarn for every revolution of the enormous driving wheel.74 In the mining sector, machines were needed for pumping water and for lifting and carrying ore; during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, this machinery

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BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The Great Crane at Bruges. This machine is a typical example of fixed capital in preindustrial Europe. As one readily notices, the main problem was the power source; the crane had to be operated with human energy. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek.

often attained notable dimensions. In a lead mine in Poland about one hundred horses were employed to operate a pumping contraption, and in the second half of the sixteenth century 32 kilometers of galleries for drainage were excavated when the cost of excavating one kilometer equalled the price of about fifteen homes in the center of the mining town of Olkusz. In the shipbuilding sector, basins, docks, workshops, implements, and cranes represented considerable fixed capital. The Arsenal of Venice was deservedly famous throughout the later Middle Ages and the early modern periods for its size, its installations, and its stocks of materials. In England at the end of the seventeenth century, the fixed assets of Kentish shipyards at Chatham, Deptford, Woolwich, and Sheerness, were valued at about £76,000 (Table 2.18). If we accept

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67

Gregory King’s estimates of the English national income for 1688 (£43.5 million, according to Table 1.5) the sum of £76,000 was equivalent to almost 0.2 percent of the annual English national income. There is no doubt, however, that apart from specific industries, normally in the manufacturing sector, fixed capital was of limited size. Moreover, since machinery and equipment were relatively simple, the greatest part of Table 2.18 Fixed plants in four major English naval shipyards, 1688

Chatham Deptford Woolwich Sheerness

Docks

Workshops

Depots

Workers’ houses

Cranes

Value of plant (£)

5 1 2 1

24 17 5 3

10 2 1 1

10 7 7 8

4 2 2 12

44,940 15,760 9,669 5,393

the fixed capital sunk in most manufactures was represented by buildings. In five factories operating in the Republic of Genoa (Italy) near the end of the eighteenth century, the composition of fixed capital was as follows:75

Silk-throwing factory Paper mill Paper mill Paper mill Furnace

Value of building (%) 87 87 85 85 100

Value of equipment (%) 13 13 15 15 —

Total 100 100 100 100 100

One important form of fixed capital was represented by weaponry. The armament of a preindustrial state may seem ridiculously small in comparison to the weaponry of a modern industrial state, but in relation to the Gross National Product of the time it represented quite an investment. Moreover, while in a modern state the armory in the hands of private individuals is practically insignificant when compared to the weaponry controlled by the public powers, in preindustrial Europe the situation was totally different. Troyes is a medium-sized city in France which in October 1474 counted some 2,300 households. An official inspection of all homes showed that at the time the citizens owned 208 jacks, 51 complete suits of armor, 109 breastplates and overshirts, 199 shirts of mail and coats of mail, 73 surcoats, 49 brigandines and underskirts, 785 sallets and armets, 151 barbutes and basinets, 271 crossbows, 547 muskets, with both automatic recoil and manual, 4 cannons, one serpentine, 389 lances, 855 hatchets and hammers, 1,047 spears, 201 javelins, double-hooked lances, and pikes, 37 bows, 657 two-headed hammers of lead, copper, and iron. Moreover, in the shops of the town merchants there were for sale: 69 jacks, 6 complete suits of armor, one decorated breastplate, 5 overshirts, 14 brigandines, 6 shirts of mail, 79 lances, 110 sallets, 16 steel crossbows, 8 hammers, 56 swords, 17 pairs of gauntlets.76 Admittedly that was a turbulent period for France, and in particular the citizens of Troyes feared the consequences of the war between Louis XI and Charles le Téméraire. Still, even for calmer periods and quieter areas, if one combines the armory in the hands of private citizens and the weaponry owned by the public powers, one always finds that that particular form of capital represented quite a sizable amount of wealth.

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There are no reliable statistics to evaluate precisely the relative importance of the various kinds of fixed capital in preindustrial Europe. The only data available are the educated guesses of Gregory King for England in 1688 (see Table 2.19), but they seem to confirm the general impression one obtains from the scanty and casual information provided by the surviving Table 2.19 Gregory King’s estimate of English capital in 1688 Million pounds Buildings Fixed capital

Livestock Plants, tools, and machinery

Working capital

54 25 33

Stocks and inventories Total

112

Source: Deane, “Capital Formation,” p. 96.

records—namely, that the most important form of fixed reproducible capital was buildings, followed by livestock, with plants, tools, and machinery ranking in third place. If one were to distinguish between the various uses to which fixed capital was put, one would notice that churches and monasteries abounded. A medium-sized city such as Pavia (Italy) in the fifteenth century, with about 16,000 inhabitants, had over one hundred churches, and this was in no way exceptional. Hospital beds, on the other hand, were so scarce that, until well into the nineteenth century, it was common practice in every part of Europe to place two or three patients in one bed. Bridges were few and roads inadequate, but castles were abundant. The distribution of capital among various forms and uses is influenced by technological as well as economic and cultural factors. The building of magnificent cathedrals at a time when hospital beds were so scarce that the sick had to be piled up two or more to a bed reflects the unequal distribution of wealth as well as a peculiar set of preferences. If wonderful private mansions were built while bridges were few and roads inadequate, this imbalance is related to the fact that, all things considered, public agencies were able to draw on only a limited part of available resources. But the explanation does not end there. The same hospitals which lacked beds were adorned with costly works of art. The state which did not build bridges sank considerable resources into military expenditure. The direction of investment was and is determined by the structure of demand—that is, by tastes and standards of value. Working capital essentially consists of stocks and inventories, which can conveniently be subdivided into a. stocks of raw materials b. stocks of semi-finished goods c. stocks of finished goods There is no doubt that in preindustrial Europe the ratio of working to fixed capital was much higher than it is nowadays. The reason for this difference may be explained as follows. The maximum possible consumption of a given society at a given time is determined by the volume of stocks plus the volume of current production. Therefore, the significance of stocks is a function of both the intensity of fluctuations in current production, and the inelasticity of demand. Economic life in preindustrial Europe was characterized by violent fluctuations in harvests, insecurity of transportation and, therefore, irregularity of supplies, both of foodstuffs and of raw materials. Transportation was expensive, which made long-distance transport of

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low-priced commodities an uneconomical proposition. As a result, people usually built up stocks of foodstuffs wherever they could, and businessmen normally built up ample stocks of raw materials and/or finished goods. Stocks of food were particularly important. We saw previously, in Chapter 1, that public authorities spared no efforts to build up and maintain stocks of victuals. The same attitude prevailed at the household level, as the specter of famine and hunger continually loomed over the consciousness of the people. It was investment prompted by fear. Pavia, a small city of northern Italy, at the middle of the sixteenth century numbered about 12,000 inhabitants. In one year this community obtained from its surrounding territory about 28,000 bags of wheat (almost 100,000 bushels) for current consumption. In 1555 it was found that people held in their homes about 3,700 bags.77 It was already May, and one-tenth, at most, of the stock was destined for the year’s consumption until the harvest. The remaining 3,330 bags were, therefore, long-term reserves. The reader will have noted that this discussion of food reserves has been couched in the context of investment. It may seem strange to some that wheat and bread should be treated as capital. In fact, when they are consumed, bread and wheat are consumption goods. But when they are spared from consumption and kept in storage, even goods like bread and wheat become by definition part of the stock of wealth which we call capital. Capital formation is future oriented, and the supply of capital is determined by how much consumption it promises for the future and by how much consumption it takes away in the present. Creating and maintaining stocks generates costs. There are costs related to warehousing and to the possible deterioration of all or part of the product. If the businessman finances the building up of stocks with borrowed money, costs also include the rate of interest paid. If the businessman finances the building up of stocks with his own means, he incurs an opportunity cost. Because stocks cost money, one tends to keep them to a minimum, and since the industrial world does not operate under as heavy a burden of insecurity and high costs of transportation as preindustrial Europe did, the ratio of working capital to fixed capital is today noticeably reduced. However, even today when fears of international complications and conflicts arise, stocks of strategic materials and basic necessities increase markedly, reflecting conditions reminiscent of those which prevailed in preindustrial Europe. So far we have referred only to monetary costs. In preindustrial Europe, however, stocks of foodstuffs implied also a high externality cost, of which the people of the time were not aware. The storing of large quantities of grain was the source of a large and prosperous rat population, which, in turn, was the source of frequent plague and typhus epidemics. Stocks represent working capital, and in comparison with fixed capital they have a much higher degree of volatility. Fixed capital is sunk; it is embodied in a particular form (a building, a machine, a ship) from which it can only gradually, at best, be released. It is hard to disinvest once the investment has been sunk in fixed capital. Working capital, on the contrary, is continually turned over; it is continually coming back for reinvestment. When investment is in the form of working capital, disinvestment is easier: one sells existing stocks (if one can) and refrains from replenishing them. This means that when stocks and inventories make up a large fraction of the existing capital, disinvestment can be more massive and drastic than if a large fraction of investment is sunk in fixed capital. Big recessions are not an exclusive trait of contemporary capitalism. Preindustrial slumps could also be very severe, and one of the reasons was the relative size and the volatility of working capital. The severe recessions of 1619–21 and 1630–32 in northern and central Italy are classic examples of crises which resulted in and were magnified by dramatic reductions in the volume of stocks and inventories. For the reasons that have just been illustrated, much of the accumulated capital took the form of stocks. Stocks were a stabilizing kind of capital rather than a kind that promoted development. Further, the very fact that savings resulted from a high concentration of wealth meant that such savings tended to be

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The storage of foodstuffs. The conditions which existed in preindustrial Europe drove families to keep as large a reserve of foodstuffs as possible. The reserves were stored in attics and roofs with special openings for ventilation. This picture shows the roof of a house in Strasbourg, France. Commission Régionale d’Inventaire d’Alsace, Strasbourg.

channeled into military investment (towers, ramparts, castles), religious investment (cathedrals, churches, monasteries) and luxury (palaces, works of art) rather than into more productive forms of investment. It should also be remembered that as long as most available energy was derived from either animal or vegetable sources, the marginal return on capital invested in production was bound to fall very sharply. As for medieval agriculture, Professor Postan has written that the reasons why investment was so limited was not so much “the poor potential for saving” but rather the fact that “opportunities for productive investment were extremely limited.” In my view, this comment holds good not only for medieval agriculture but also for other sectors of the European preindustrial economy. Taken together these factors help to explain the low levels of production of preindustrial societies and the vicious circle of poverty to which they were condemned. NATURAL RESOURCES The third factor of production consists of natural resources. The term is used to mean land as well as other resources. Today it is fashionable to refer to these resources as nonreproducible capital in order to emphasize the fact that when, for example, a coal deposit is exhausted, it is beyond human power to reconstitute it. And, if it is true that reclamation can increase the quantity of available arable land, it is also true that the amount of land on the earth is finite.

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71

In preindustrial Europe, the natural resource par excellence was land. In Malthus’s and Ricardo’s time, land was still the factor which, in the last analysis, “set limits to population growth and determined the distribution of the population.”78 As has been rightly observed: It is natural to ascribe a large importance to the per capita supply of land in a dominantly agricultural society where levels of technology are low and little capital is employed. Agricultural techniques may improve or nonagricultural pursuits develop, but too slowly to offset the depressive effect of a falling supply of land per head when the population rises…. The ratio of cultivable land to population has been the chief determinant of the level of real income of pre-industrial societies…. It is tempting to relate the great secular fluctuations [of real wages] of the first five and a half centuries primarily to changes in the ratio of population to land.79 By “land,” one meant, above all, arable land. The resources of the subsoil, however, were not ignored. Among the natural resources exploited in Europe prior to the eighteenth century, of particular importance were mineral deposits of silver, mercury, alum, tin, sulfur, copper, and iron. Pitcoal was already in use in the Middle Ages, but medieval people were very suspicious of this type of fuel, vaguely but strongly feeling that its use “poisoned the air.” Albeit with overtones of superstition, medieval people were more conscious of possible pollution damage than people at the time of the Industrial Revolution. Forests must be considered separately. From a theoretical point of view, forests cannot be treated as nonproducible capital because trees can be, and are, planted by man; forests are, therefore, reproducible capital. In fact, during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, trees were planted and attention was paid to the problem of forest preservation. In mountain districts, the felling of trees in communal woods was regulated, from an early date, by precise rules. In 1281, the English Cistercians established enclosures of five years to protect the seedlings in their forests. In the same period the Statutes of the Commune of Montaguloto dell’Ardinghesea, in the district of Siena, laid down that every member of the commune inheriting a hide had to plant ten trees a year. In France from the end of the thirteenth century public concern about the fate of the forests gave rise to a series of royal as well as local provisions. In 1346 King Philip IV issued an ordinance regulating the cutting of trees and the consumption of timber. In 1669 the great minister Colbert inspired the formulation of an organic law for the protection of the forests. In the Hapsburg territories, Emperor Ferdinand I issued a general ordinance on the matter of forestry in 1557 and instituted the position of Königlich-Kaiserlich Förstmeister (Royal and Imperial Master of the Forests) for all hereditary territories of the Crown. One perceives the same kind of concern at the level of the local agricultural units. In the seventeenth-century accounts of the Medicean farm of Cafaggioli, it is clearly specified that “the trees are cut in the woods only once every ten years.” Ordinances, statutes, decrees, and individual provisions, however, did not prove very effective. When population pressure grew and/or the demand for wood increased, the knell of the forest was rung. Throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, the Europeans behaved toward the trees in an eminently parasitic and extremely wasteful way. The maquis of southern France, the barren lands of central Spain, are a sad testimonial to what Europeans increasingly did to their forests after the end of the tenth century. Italy exhausted her forest reserves very early, which explains the extensive use of brick and marble in Italian architecture. In Lombardy the area covered with trees was reduced to less than 9 percent of the whole rural territory by 1555.80 The forested area represented about 33 percent of the French territory around 1500 and only 25 percent around 1650; in the meantime, also, the quality of the forests had noticeably deteriorated.81 For reasons that we shall analyze below, in the sixteenth and seventeenth

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centuries England provided the worst example of massive destruction of forests. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the European forested area was reduced to the levels shown in Table 2.20. The main bottleneck of preindustrial economies was the strictly limited supply of energy. The main sources of energy other than man’s muscular work were plants and animals, and this fact set a limit to the possible expansion of any given agricultural society. The limiting factor was again the supply of land on which plants are grown and animals bred. Since earliest antiquity the sailing ship had enabled man to master the energy of the wind on water, and this fact accounts for the fortunes of peoples who, like the Greeks and the Phoenicians, had open access to easily navigable seas. As we shall see below, the people of medieval and Renaissance Europe learned to harness the energy of water and wind to a remarkable extent for land-based activities. The mills of European design could do the work for which other societies needed gangs of slaves, and the medieval and Renaissance men feverishly built mills wherever and whenever they could. Availability of steady winds and the presence of waterfalls and streams must thus be counted among the natural resources of preindustrial Europe. They were to the people of the time what coal, oil, and uranium are to an industrialized society. The difference is that while the energy potentially embodied in coal, oil, and uranium can be transported, the energy of wind and water has to be used on the spot. This fact dictated the location of most manufactures of preindustrial Europe: they were normally located where mills could be built. Table 2.20 Forested area in Europe in about the middle of the nineteenth century Thousand acres Russia Austro-Hungary Germany France Italy Spain

429,868 36,546 34,977 21,992 12,417 11,737

ORGANIZATION In order to result in any production, labor, capital, and natural resources must be combined in organizational forms which vary according to technology, the size of markets, and the types of production. Within any given society, at a given level of technology, and for the same kind of production, greatly different forms of organization can coexist. In a modern metropolis, for instance, the giant supermarket coexists with the little grocery shop run as a family business. The following generalizations must therefore be taken with more than a pinch of salt and allowance must be made for an infinite number of variations and exceptions. When our millennium started, in the agricultural sector the prevalent (although, by no means the exclusive) form of organization of labor, capital, and land was represented by the manorial system. Manors were large concentrations of landed property. Within a manor the land was generally divided into several farms. One farm was very large and was managed directly by the lord himself (the demesne or mansus indominicatus). The other farms, variable in number, were unequal in size but much smaller than the central farm; they were scattered at some distance and were granted out to peasant households. The fundamental role of these satellite farms was to be subsidiary to the demesne: specifically they had to provide the lord

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73

with periodic tributes and above all with contributions in labor (corvées) for the needs of the central farm. Fundamentally the classical manor around the year 1000 was an economic microcosm, centrally planned, largely self-sufficient, within which both the division of labor and monetary exchange played minimal and irrelevant roles. By the middle of the twelfth century, the manorial system was beginning to disintegrate: first in Italy, then in France, and finally in Germany and England. Italian developments seem to have been a whole century ahead of those of France and the latter almost a century ahead of those of England. Large-scale demesne farming operations gradually ceased, the land hitherto managed directly by the lord was let to peasant farmers and the labor services due from customary holdings were commuted to monetary rents or shares of the crops. The story of western European agriculture in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries is completely dominated by the disintegration of the manorial organization. What emerged in its place was an extraordinary variety of organizational forms suited to local economic and geophysical conditions. In Tuscany mezzadria (sharecropping) prevailed; the Lombard plain in the fifteenth century saw the flourishing of protocapitalistic fermiers who acted as intermediaries between absentee landowners and tenant sharecroppers; in sixteenth-century England enclosing and engrossing were the prevailing trends. The detailed description of these and similar local forms of agricultural organization would be of great interest and significance but would occupy a space too large for the present book. Let us turn to the manufacturing sector. We are accustomed today to the idea of the factory. In preindustrial Europe, however, from the beginning of our millennium to the Industrial Revolution, the prevailing technical unit of manufacturing production was and remained the workshop. The industrial factory is characterized by a high concentration of wage-labor and machines. In the workshop, the concentration of labor and capital was minimal and wage-labor was almost unknown. The wage worker of the modern factory operates with capital not his own, is subject to a strict work discipline, and performs a series of highly specialized and routine operations which contribute to a limited part of the final product. The craftsman of the preindustrial workshop often, if not always, owned the capital or at least part of it, worked longer hours than the industrial worker, but was not subject to the hard discipline of the factory, and in some manufacturing sectors had the pleasure and pride of seeing the final product emerge from his own hands. These are the human aspects. But in order to understand the preindustrial workshop, it is necessary to delve into more technical aspects, in particular the relation between craftsmen and merchant-entrepreneurs. In the more highly developed trades, the artisan did not normally produce for the market. With his limited financial resources, he could not undertake the risks connected with such production. He normally worked on commission. The man who gave him the orders was the “merchant,” who often advanced to the craftsman the necessary working capital (raw materials) and sometimes also lent him the fixed capital (looms, for example). The economic dimension of the craftsman’s business was thus determined by the economic dimension of the business of the merchant, who gave the work order, provided the raw materials, undertook the distribution of the products, developed the markets, determined the type of product, and exercised quality control over the activities of the worker. The merchant produced for the market and, as one can still see in Florence and Venice, the mansions of the merchants included in their structure large rooms intended solely for the storage of the raw materials and the finished goods. The organization of production thus revolved around these two poles, the craftsman’s workshop and the warehouse of the merchant. In the first, work was done to order. In the second, production was for the market and the merchants concerned themselves with both the supply of raw materials and the marketing of finished goods.

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These are the broad lines of the picture but there were countless gradations and exceptions, and especially in the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, some enterprises assumed more modern characteristics in relation to both size and organization. Mining and shipbuilding were the typical sectors in which “bigness” prevailed at an early stage. By the sixteenth century the arsenal of Venice was more the prototype of a modern factory than the appendix of the old artisan yards. In seventeenth-century England, “in all dockyard centers and especially at Portsmouth and in the Medway towns there was a clear picture of substantial concentration of workers laboring under conditions very different from those surrounding the domestic system.”82 At Chatham in 1665, 800 workers were assembled in the local dockyard. Outside the mining and shipbuilding sectors, the units of manufacturing production usually remained small, although there were exceptions. In the 1550s Gilbert van Schoonbeke built in Antwerp an integrated system of breweries that involved the enormous investment of 271,000 florins.83 In seventeenth-century Amsterdam a manufacturer of crystal and fine glass possibly employed 80 workmen.84 In northern Italy, in the second half of the seventeenth century, some silk thread manufacturers employed as many as 150 and 200 workers.85 These large units of manufacturing production were dwarfed, however, by the giants which, in the course of the seventeenth century, emerged in the tertiary sector, and specifically in overseas trade. The Dutch East India Company employed directly some 12,000 men toward the end of the seventeenth century. The “big ones,” whether in manufacturing or in trading sectors, formed the vanguard of modern capitalism. But no matter how important, for the volume of business they carried or for the example of organization they set, they remained exceptions. Between them and the traditional workshops there was a wide spectrum of intermediate forms such as that represented by the glass and earthenware business of Giovan Pietro moyollario in the small town of Pavia (Italy). We have an inventory of this business dated 1546. At the head of the enterprise was Giovan Pietro. One part of the business included the workers (magistri), a furnace, and the utensils (fornax et instrumenta). Another part included the sales shop and special salesmen (venditores) who divided their time between attending to customers in the shop and wandering around in the city with special baskets (cavagnolle longhe a venditoribus) to sell the product. The house of the master included the furnace and the shop, but also an office (studieto), a room for the workers (camera magistrorum) with three beds and two tables, and a room for the salesmen (camera venditorum) with one bed. That is, the workers and salesmen lived and slept in the factory, which was, at the same time, the house of the master.86 History is seldom schematic or simple: hybrid, transitional forms prevail, such as the productive unit of Giovan Pietro, which was no longer a workshop but not yet a factory.

3 PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION

CHOICE AND PRODUCTIVITY The level and structure of effective demand result from a twofold set of choices—a choice between how much to spend and how much not to spend and a choice between an infinite number of possible types of expenditure. These choices are like votes: by purchasing product A and not purchasing product B, one pushes up the price of product A while depressing that of product B. On the supply side, in a market economy, economic operators decide when, what, and how much to produce on the basis of price indications. Once they have decided what to produce, these operators must then choose the best possible combination of factors of production. The whole economic process is therefore a matter of choices—on the part of the consumers and on the part of the producers. In the last analysis, choices are necessary because resources are much more limited than wants. Production is the outcome of all these individual and social choices acting on both the demand and the supply side. THE DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTION Put simply, production is a function of capital, labor, and natural resources. Some twenty-five years ago, economists were content to stop at this point in macroeconomic analysis, but since the 1950s they have taken to splitting hairs. The factors of production—labor, capital, and natural resources—are the inputs of a productive system. From their combination emerges output—that is, production. Any single mixture of inputs can produce different outputs—different in quality and/or quantity. Physical productivity is the factor which determines the quantity and quality of the product, given the quantity and quality of the inputs. Economists have lately discovered that, during the last century, output (as measured by Gross National Product) has consistently grown faster than can be accounted for by the increase of the inputs of labor, capital, and natural resources. This discovery led economists on a hunt for another factor which might explain the difference between “how much has been produced” and “how much would have been produced if the factors at play had been only labor, capital, and natural resources.” However, “how much would have been produced…” represents an arbitrary estimate which depends on a series of hypothetical assumptions made by those who undertake research of this kind. Even if some agreement could be reached about the size of the residual (the difference between “how much was produced” and “how much would have been produced if…”), the source of the residual remains in question. The following factors are generally quoted:

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a. increase in division of labor between different economies, through the development of trade b. economies of scale c. more efficient allocation of factors of production d. technological development e. better education Classifications of this type are useful for logical-anatomic analysis, but they are artificial. In reality, there are no separate streams; everything flows together. For example, “technological development” is in no way separate or “exogenous” to the economic system. Economists often classify it as “exogenous” because it suits their analysis to do so. But it is a trick. As R.O.C.Matthews and C.H.Feinstein have written, “exogeneity is a label applied for conceptual reasons and in no sense an intrinsic attribute of the factors in question.” On the contrary, technological development springs from the brains of the people—that is, labor —and is incorporated in the machines and tools that they use—that is, in capital. It seems unlikely, in any case, that any list can ever be regarded as complete. In 1947, long before Aukrust, Dennison, Solow, and the other “residualists” appeared, J.Schumpeter wrote that “only in very rare cases” can economic development be explained in terms of “causal factors such as an increase in population or the supply of capital.” An economy or a firm often succeeds in doing “something more,” and according to Schumpeter this “something more” “from the standpoint of the observer who is in full possession of all relevant facts…can be understood ex post but it can never be understood ex ante; that is to say, it cannot be predicted by applying the ordinary rules of inference from the preexisting facts.”1 Schumpeter identified this “something more” as the “creative response of history.” Schumpeter had a profound intuition but, wishing to reduce the intangible to the tangible, the very complex to the very simple, made the mistake of reducing the whole to a part—in this specific case, to entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurial activity is a necessary ingredient, but not a sufficient one. It is the human vitality of a whole society which, given the opportunity, comes into play and sets loose the “creative response of history.” When a society shows vitality it does so at all levels, not only the economic, and it succeeds better than other societies which seemingly have the same amounts of resources at their disposal. It is not by chance that, when Italian merchants greatly contributed to European economic development, Dante was writing the Divine Comedy, Giotto was introducing innovations in painting, and St Francis was starting his religious movement. In the seventeenth century, when the Low Countries became the prime movers in international trade while producing great entrepreneurs and merchants such as De Geer or the Tripps, they also produced jurists like Grotius, experimentalists such as Huyghens and Leeuwenhoek, and painters such as Rembrandt. Economists who try to split the product of this human vitality, arbitrarily attributing parts of it to this factor and parts to that, bring to mind a fellow who, confronted with one of Giotto’s paintings, would try to measure how much of the beauty of the painting was due to the type of brush used, how much to the chemistry of the colors, and how much to the time taken by the artist. In order to understand what happened in certain societies, it is necessary to understand an atmosphere of collective enthusiasm, of exaltation and of cooperation. When the Cathedral of Chartres was being built “people pulled carts loaded with stones and with wood, and with everything necessary for the construction of the church….”2 “Silence and humility” dominated, wrote Ugo3 and another chronicler commented, “He who has not seen these facts will never see the same again.” When in 1066 the Abbot Desiderio started the construction of a basilica at the top of Monte Cassino, the first great marble column was borne to the summit on the shoulders of people filled with mystical fervor.4

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In other cases, political ideology operated; in yet others, enthusiasm for new lands, the spirit of the frontier, the feeling of liberation from restrictions imposed by scarcity of resources or by ossified social and political institutions. When one admires certain exquisite works of art by humble craftsmen of the past, knowing how inadequate the economic incentives were, one cannot but conclude that intangible and nonmeasurable factors, such as the creative urge, love of one’s work, pride in one’s own ability and selfrespect, where they exist, make miracles possible; and that the absence of these factors depresses production both quantitatively and qualitatively. Sociologists, analyzing these facts, have coined numerous and varied terms, such as “motivation,” “collective enthusiasm,” “cooperation,” or, in the opposite sense, “alienation.” There is no lack of words; what is lacking is the ability to analyze these things in a functional way, to understand them ex ante as causal elements rather than ex post as a residual which—whether positive or negative—remains largely mysterious. MEDIEVAL AND RENAISSANCE PRODUCTIVITY LEVELS As we shall see later, in the centuries of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance there was marked technological progress. Undoubtedly, the levels of productivity prevailing in Europe at the end of the sixteenth century were considerably higher than they had been six hundred years earlier. But by our standards they were still abysmally low. After all, Europe started her ascent from an extremely primitive stage at the turn of our millennium; and until the seventeenth century, the lack of a systematic criterion of experimentation and research made every innovation dependent upon wearisome and rough empiricism. The productivity of labor was adversely affected by the poverty and scarcity of the equipment and by the low educational levels of the labor force itself. The productivity of capital remained depressed because of the low technological levels and by the limited availability of sources of energy, which were essentially still of animal and vegetable nature.5 Land was by far the most important available natural resource, and its yield was limited. All this is interesting but extremely vague. Adjectives such as low, reduced, limited, are like mist: they leave too much to the imagination. Let us try to emerge from the fog with a few figures, beginning with agriculture. A pioneer in the quantitative study of agricultural history is Slicher van Bath. Having gathered data on yield-seed ratios from various European countries, van Bath calculated synthetic averages for wheat, rye, barley, and oats. The results are summarized in Table 3.1.6 Figures of this kind must be taken with more than a simple grain of salt.7 J.Z.Titlow, who patiently collected a vast amount of data on agricultural returns in medieval England, has shown that, by extending the sample, one obtains results which differ noticeably from those of van Bath (Table 3.2). At any rate, in both Tables 3.1 and 3.2, averages for the various countries are not based on comprehensive data but on scattered information derived from a relatively small number of cases. Table 3.4 contains analogous data for selected areas of Italy, from the fertile plain of the Po Valley (Imola), to the Tuscan farms, to the poor soils of the Ligurian Appenines (Montaldeo). Table 3.5 is based on an exceptionally comprehensive statistic regarding the whole territory of Siena, which was by far the most important grain-producing area of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. A cursory glance at the figures in the following tables is enough to show that agricultural yields varied greatly from one year to the next and from one area to another, owing to the very poor control of man over the forces of nature. Consequently, in the presence of these massive fluctuations, statistical averages have little meaning. Moreover even when one takes the most fertile areas and the most propitious periods, one still finds miserably low yields. The yield ratio for wheat reached the level of 6

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Table 3.1 Average gross yields per seed for wheat, rye, barley, and oats in selected European countries, 1200–1699 Grains yielded per seed planted Period

England

France

Germany

1200–1249 1250–1499 1500–1699

3.7 4.7 7.0

4.3 6.3

4.2

Source: Slicher van Bath, “Yield Ratios,” p. 15. Table 3.2 Average yields per unit of wheat seed in England, 1200–1349

1200–49 1250–99 1300–49

According to Slicher van Bath

According to Titow

2.9 4.2 3.9

3.8 3.8 3.9

Source: Titow, Winchester Yields, p. 4. Table 3.3 Mean yield ratios on the estate of the bishopric of Winchester, 1209–1453 Date

Wheat

Barley

Oats

1209–70 1271–99 1300–24 1325–49 1349–80 1381–1410 1411–53

3.85 3.79 3.90 3.96 3.66 3.88 3.66

4.32 3.36 3.57 3.74 3.53 4.13 3.64

2.63 2.21 2.21 2.25 2.43 2.93 3.03

Source: D.L.Farmer, “Grain yields on the Winchester manors in the later middle ages,” Ec.H.R., 2nd ser., 30 (1977), p. 560.

only in the best years, while today in the American wheat belt it normally reaches the level of above 30. In the territory of Bologna (Italy) in the second half of the fifteenth century 2.5 acres of vineyard produced on average fifty gallons of wine per year. Today in the same region production is seven times greater and of much better quality.8 The land produced little because seeds were not selected, crop rotation and implements were primitive, pesticides were Table 3.4 Average yields per unit of wheat seed in selected areas of Italy, 1300–1600 Area

Year

Yield

Arezzo1

1386 1387 1390 1510–19 1520–29 1530–39

5.3 11 6.5 2.4–5.6 2.6–6.0 2.5–5.7

Parma2

Area

Year

Yield

1625–34 1635–44 1645–54 1655–64 1665–74 1675–84

5.6 5.7 4.9 5.5 6.6 6.0

PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION

Area

Florence3

Imola4

Year

Yield

1540–49 1550–59 1560–69 1611–20 1621–30 1631–40 1641–44 1656–60 1661–70 1671–80 1681–90 1691–1700

2.6–6.3 0.2–5.3 1.7–5.8 9.4 7.6 7.4 7.5 6.7 6.1 5.9 6.7 6.0

1515–24 1525–34 1535–44 1545–54 1555–64 1565–74 1585–94 1595–1604 1605–14 1615–24

7.3 6.3 6.7 6.3 5.2 6.0 5.6 5.1 6.4 5.4

Area

Montaldeo5

Year

Yield

1685–94 1695–1704 1560 1649 1650 1664 1672 1673 1674 1677 1678 1681 1683 1686 1687 1688 1692 1693 1694 1695 1697 1699 1700

6.6 5.8 1 178

14 15 18 >145

67,000 115,000 340,000

Source: Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry, pp. 7, 15, 25, 27.

e. stimulated the development of insurance and transport activities f. helped to create an institutional structure and a business ethic which was to prove effective in promoting both internal activity and foreign trade g. proved to a great school of entrepreneurship for all those who, directly or indirectly, participated in international trade h. was the prime cause of growth of large towns and industrial centers90 In addition to all that precedes, one has to emphasize another development which affected the delicate relationship between trade and manufacture. In Britain as a whole, there is no doubt that the economic importance of guilds declined in the course of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This was partly

214

THE CHANGING BALANCE OF ECONOMIC POWER

related to the action of the Crown, which did not approve of the restrictive practices of the crafts guilds. But it was related above all to the growth of trade. In London, crafts guilds came under the domination of mercantile guilds, whose rich and economically powerful members controlled either the market or the raw material of the craftsmen. That was the situation which had prevailed in northern Italy in her golden age. But in Italy during the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, the crafts guilds had managed to free themselves from the tutelage and predominance of the mercantile guilds and had succeeded in enforcing, with increasing determination, their restrictive and conservative practices, with severe consequences on the costs of production. In seventeenth-century England the opposite took place. It would be difficult to overestimate the importance of the various factors mentioned so far. Ultimately, however, human events can be understood only in human terms. I referred above to the presence on the English scene of a large class of capable merchants and to the intelligent action of government in relation to trade. But one should go farther than that. Admittedly, most of the human qualities which ultimately determine the success or the failure of a society can scarcely be defined and certainly not measured. But this fact does not detract from their relevance. When one reads the writings of Samuel Pepys, John Graunt, William Petty, Isaac Newton; when one observes their endeavors and the activity of the Royal Society, one distinctly perceives pervasive traits of systematic, enlightened, logical rationalism which seems to have characterized increasingly broad strata of English society in the seventeenth century and was perhaps its most valuable asset. During the seventeenth century the English came to a full realization of their power. And in vigor lies the seed of aggression. The English brought forward their theory of Mare Clausum in opposition to the Dutch theory of Mare Liberum. A Swedish diplomat who attempted to mediate between the two nations wrote from London to Queen Christine of Sweden in June 1653 that the English were “intolerably arrogant and it may be that God will punish them for their pride.” But God was busy with other things.

EPILOGUE

Between 1780 and 1850 an unprecedented and far-reaching revolution changed the face of England. From then on the world was no longer the same. Historians have often used and abused the word “revolution” to mean a radical change, but no revolution has been as dramatically revolutionary as the Industrial Revolution.1 The Industrial Revolution opened the door to a completely new world, a world of new and untapped sources of energy such as coal, oil, electricity, and the atom; a world in which man found himself able to handle huge masses of energy to an extent inconceivable in the preceding rural world. From a narrowly technological and economic point of view, the Industrial Revolution can be defined as the process by which a society acquired control over vast sources of inanimate energy. But such a definition does not do justice to the phenomenon, in terms of either its distant origins or its economic, cultural, social, and political implications. Crescenzi in the thirteenth century and the agronomists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries could still usefully refer to the agricultural treatises of the ancient Romans. The ideas of Hippocrates and Galen continued to form the basis of official medicine well into the eighteenth century—two centuries after the revolt of Paracelsus. It did not seem absurd to Machiavelli to refer to Roman military arrangements when he planned an army for his times. At the end of the eighteenth century Catherine II of Russia had transported an enormous stone from Finland to St Petersburg, to set it at the base of the monument dedicated to Peter the Great. The method of transporting the colossal stone was much the same as that used thousands of years earlier by the ancient Egyptians when they built their pyramids. As Cederna wrote, From the Pharaohs to Baron Hausmann certain things in the architecture of the past have remained constant and immutable even through a thousand stylistic variations: the materials—stone, lime, bricks —and certain fundamental relations between supporting and supported, wall and roof, column and arch, pillar and vault, and so on. It is easy to give examples of monuments literally born out of existing ones. The travertine of the Colosseum served excellently in the building of St Peter’s in the Vatican in the 16th century.2 A basic fundamental continuity characterized the preindustrial world, even through grandiose changes, such as the rise and fall of Rome, the triumph and decline of Islam, the Chinese dynastic cycles. As C.H. Waddington has observed: If a Roman of the Empire could be transported some eighteen centuries forward in time, he would have found himself in a society which he could, without too great difficulty, have learned to comprehend. Horace would have felt himself reasonably at home as a guest of Horace Walpole and

216

EPILOGUE

Catullus would soon have learned his way among the sedan chairs, the patched-up beauties and the flaring torches of London streets at night.3 This continuity was broken between 1780 and 1850. If, at the middle of the nineteenth century, a general studied the organization of the Roman army, if a physician concerned himself with the ideas of Hippocrates and Galen, if an agronomist read Columella, they did it purely out of historical interest or as an academic exercise. Even in far-away, unchanging China, it was becoming painfully evident to the most enlightened among the scholar-officials of the Celestial Empire that the ancient classical texts and values which had given continuity to Chinese history through invasions and dynastic cycles were no longer valid for survival in the contemporary world. By 1850 the past was not merely past—it was dead. Yet, if in the course of three generations the Industrial Revolution had become a dramatic watershed in the course of history, its roots nevertheless reached deep into the preceding century. In Chapter 4 I tried to show that the origins of the Industrial Revolution reach back to that profound change in ideas, social structures, and value systems that accompanied the rise of the urban communes in the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. In Chapter 6 I stressed that the technological changes that we identify with the Industrial Revolution were the extrapolation of the technological innovations of the western Middle Ages. The Industrial Revolution occurred in England because it was there that a series of historical circumstances brought about—as W.S.Jevons once wrote—“the union of certain happy mental qualities with material resources of an altogether peculiar character.” From England the Industrial Revolution soon spread to the rest of Europe. To date the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in any country is as arbitrary as to date the beginning of the Middle Ages or the modern age. Within the same country geographical areas, social groups, and economic sectors move at different paces; new activities and new forms of life develop while a number of traditional activities and old institutions manage to survive. In broad terms, however, one can say that by 1850 the Industrial Revolution had penetrated Belgium, France, Germany, and Switzerland. By 1900 it had extended to northern Italy, Russia and Sweden. That the Industrial Revolution was essentially and primarily a sociocultural phenomenon and not a purely technological one, becomes patently obvious when one considers that the first countries to industrialize were those which had the greatest cultural and social similarities with England. The Industrial Revolution gave Europe a tremendous technological and economic advantage over the rest of the world, and the nineteenth century saw Europe proudly asserting this global predominance. If one pauses to ponder on all that Europe accomplished in the nine centuries of her ascent, one cannot help being filled with amazement and admiration. Undoubtedly there were dark and bloody pages, but there was, above all, an endless series of superb accomplishments in all fields of human activity. The medieval cathedrals; the paintings of the Renaissance; the music of Mozart, Beethoven, and Bach; the poetry of Dante; the prose of Boccaccio and Chaucer; the tragedies of Shakespeare; the philosophy of Aquinas, Descartes, and Kant; the wit of Montaigne and Voltaire; the medieval clocks; the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci; the innumerable technological innovations of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance; the steam engine; the microscope; the discoveries of microbiology, the miracles of chemistry; the Suez canal; the business techniques, from the check to the stock exchange; the condemnation of torture; the assertion of the principle of human freedom and rights; the parliamentary system—there is no end to the list of Europe’s accomplishments in the period AD 1000–1900. Moreover, technology and the Industrial Revolution in Europe irrevocably changed the course of history, not only in Europe’s own territories, but throughout the world. The history of any remote corner of the world after 1500 cannot be properly understood without taking into account the impact of European culture, economy, and technology. Henri Pirenne once wrote

BEFORE THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

217

that Sans Mahomet Charlemagne est inconcevable. We can paraphrase him by saying that Sans l’Europe l’histoire moderne est inconcevable. “La Belle Epoque” was the apogee of the European saga. The great International Exhibitions in London, Paris, and Vienna were the proud and optimistic celebrations of Europe’s success. The Eiffel Tower was the monument to her economic and technological achievements. But deep within, the germ of decay was already at work. The reaction against rationalism had been voiced already by Rousseau, and it gained ground in the course of the nineteenth century, favoring nationalism and a whole series of other “isms.” The latent crisis eventually exploded in the brutal form of a war which westerners labeled the “First World War,” but which to a perceptive Asian historian looked more like “the European Civil War.” It was the beginning of a rapid end. Within less than half a century a major economic crisis and a second major war gave Europe the coup de grâce. The Spenglerian vision of the Decline of the West came into sharper focus day by day. The dawn of the twentieth century had seen Britannia ruling the waves and both England and continental Europe ruling the world. “At the beginning of the twentieth century there were six world powers and they were all located in Europe. If one mentioned the United States or Japan it was merely to make a show of geographical knowledge.” At the end of the twentieth century Europe seems to be struggling for survival. Paradoxically, Europe is on the retreat at a moment when the industrial way of life, which was originally developed by Europe, is taking over the whole world. The agony of Europe finds many echoes around the globe. After the optimism of the 1950s and the early 1960s ample evidence of anxiety is to be found in most nations. A sense of unease and foreboding is blanketing mankind. As the future of Europe looks more uncertain than ever, a question plagues an increasing number of people: is there any hope for the kind of civilization which Europe developed and then spread all over the world?

APPENDIX TABLES

Table A.1 Approximate population of selected European cities, 1300–1700 (thousands) Country

City

Italy

Asti Bergamo Bologna Brescia Como Cremona Ferrara Florence Genoa Lucca Mantua Milan Modena Naples Padua Palermo Parma Pavia Perugia Piacenza Pistoia Rome San Gimignano Siena Turin Venice Verona

c. 1300

c. 1400

c. 1500

c. 1550

55 50

18 55 40

10 37 95

55

30

11

70

60

27 100 18

35 50 20 210 32 80 20 13

27 50 16 18

4 50 3 15 4 20

115 40

27 8 45 5 10 14 160 46

c. 1600 9 24 63 50 11 40 33 80 63 25 31 110 18 250 35 100 25 18 20 30 8 110 19 20 150 55

c. 1650

58 40 9 17 25 70 70 25 15 95

c. 1700 10 25 63 35

27 80

20 100 18 215

25 20 19 16

126 16 120 25

100 30 20 16 8 135 3 16 42 140

APPENDIX TABLES

Country Germany

France

City

c. 1300

Vicenza Augsburg Cologne Frankfurt Hamburg Leipzig Nuremberg Vienna Angers Besançon Lyon Paris Rouen Strasbourg Toulouse

Country

City

Low Countries

Amsterdam Antwerp Bruges Leyden Liège Ypres London Geneva Zürich Stockholm Barcelona Madrid Seville Novgorod

England Switzerland Sweden Spain

Russia

c. 1400

c. 1500

c. 1550

c. 1600

c. 1650

c. 1700

35

25 20

26

25 20 15

15 50 15

25

60 25 11

32

42

27 17 90 500 65 27 43

18

5

30 10 10

35 20 7

20 20

50

8 70 100

300 80 25

40 23 c. 1300

22

35

c. 1400

c. 1500

c. 1550

c. 1600

c. 1650

c. 1700

15

35

100

135 57 34 66 50

180

35

11 35 5

8 70 13 5

80

250

450

55 12 600 17

7 50

100

150

6

Table A.2 Rough birth and death rates in selected European cities, 1551–1699 Births City

Years

(per thousand inhabitants)

Antwerp Bologna

1696–99 1581 1587 1595

30 38 38 36

Deaths

64 75 125

219

220

APPENDIX TABLES

Births City

Florence

London Louvain Pavia

Parma

Venice

Verona

Years

(per thousand inhabitants)

1600 1605 1606 1615 1617 1619 1620 1551 1559 1561 1562 1622 1630 1632 1633 1642 1657 1660 1661 1668 1696–99 1635–44 1640–49 1650–59 1690–99 1505–9 1545–49 1590–94 1650–54 1581 1624 1642 1696 1641–50 1651–60 1661–70 1671–80 1681–90 1691–1700

35 36

Deaths

18 46 43 11

35 46 49 41 36 47 42 39 45 43 44 48 48 49 48 50 38 44 46 40 52 41 45 42 42 34 31 37 31

37 30 41 44

33 35 30 32 38 37 49 54 42 43

APPENDIX TABLES

Births City

Years

(per thousand inhabitants)

Zürich

1631–50

37

Deaths

36

Table A.3 Infant mortality rate (died in first year of life, per thousand christened) in Fiesole (Tuscany), 1621–99 Years

Deaths

Years

Deaths

1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655

141 238 119 258 177 278 216 148 186 164 140 228 224 243 213 257 319 193 315 322 205 192 287 224 369 234 118 363 514 296 223 236 222 355 273

1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695

303 167 230 358 199 388 377 383 212 245 277 301 183 115 339 145 364 423 515 184 302 362 492 565 459 430 360 567 393 259 341 298 396 392 277

221

222

APPENDIX TABLES

Years

Deaths

Years

Deaths

1656 1657 1658 1659 1660

411 310 496 736 162

1696 1697 1698 1699

468 252 370 229

Table A.4 Characteristics of a typical preindustrial population: Sweden, 1778–82 Phenomenon

Value

Total population Population under 15 years of age Population between 15 and 64 years Population 65 years and over Dependency ratio Crude birth rate Crude death rate Crude rate of natural increase Intrinsic birth rate (females) Intrinsic death rate (females) Intrinsic rate of natural increase (females) Infant mortality Age-specific death rates: Age 1–4 (males) Age 1–4 (females) Age 50–54 (males) Age 50–54 (females) Life table values: Probability of dyirtg in first year Males Females Survivors to the age of 50 per 100 births: Males Females Life expectancy at birth: Males Females Life expectancy at 1 year: Males Females Life expectancy at 50 years: Males

2,104,000 inhabitants 31.9 percent 63.2 percent 4.9 percent 58.3 percent 34.5 per thousand 25.9 per thousand 8.6 per thousand 31.2 per thousand 25.3 per thousand 5.9 per thousand 211.6 per thousand 45.9 per thousand 44.3 per thousand 20.8 per thousand 16.1 per thousand

0.1974 0.1768 41 45 36 years 39 years 44 years 46 years 19 years

APPENDIX TABLES

Phenomenon

Value

Females Average age of women at procreation General fertility rate Gross reproduction rate

20 years 32 years 145.2 children per 1,000 women 2.2 female children per woman

Source: Keyfitz and Flieger, Population, pp. 100–03.

223

NOTES

1 DEMAND 1 Drummond and Wilbraham, The Englishman’s Food, pp. 68, 69, 124, 125. 2 The distribution of income affects the level and the structure of demand because elasticities of demand vary at different levels of income. 3 Dallington, The View of France, p. T3 v. 4 Boutruche, Bordeaux, p. 504. 5 Strauss, Nuremberg, p. 201. 6 Fanfani, Storia del lavoro, pp. 421–22. 7 See Herlihy, Pistoia, p. 188 and Fiumi, “Popolazione,” p. 94. 8 Vauban, Project de dîme royale, pp. 2–4 (p. 6 in the edition by Coornaert). 9 Inequality of wealth distribution is normally greater than inequality of income distribution; in other words, holdings of wealth are more concentrated than incomes earned annually. To what degree the distribution of wealth differed from the distribution of income in preindustrial Europe is difficult to say, but one would have thought that the discrepancy was greater in those days than today because of the tremendous concentration of land and other property in the hands of the nobility and the Church. 10 Samuelson, “A Fallacy in the Introduction of Pareto’s Law of Alleged Constancy of Income Distribution,” p. 246. 11 Guicciardini, “Relatione,” p. 131. 12 Gee, The Trade and Navigation, Chapter 23, p. 57. 13 Reinhard, Armengaud, Dupaquier, Histoire générale de la population, pp. 192–93. 14 Beloch, Bevölkerungsgeschichte, vol. 3, p. 259. 15 Wilson, England’s Apprenticeship, p. 231. 16 Tadino, Raguaglio, p. 11. 17 Gascon, Grand commerce, vol. 1, p. 404. 18 Villani, Cronica, Book 10, Chapter 162. In fact, if six denari a head were given out and 430 pounds were spent, the total of beneficiaries was 17,200. Florence counted then about 900,000 inhabitants within the city walls. 19 Priuli, “Diarii,” p. 179. 20 Mollat, “La Mortalité,” p. 505. 21 Carabellese, La peste del 1348, pp. 51 and 65. 22 Passerini, Stabilimenti di beneficenza, pp. 344–35. In pp. 873 et seq., Appendix L, Passerini provides the list of names of benefactors of the hospital. 23 Paschetti, Lettera, p. 26. 24 Gnoli, “Roma e i Papi,” p. 123. See also Fanfani, Storia del lavoro in Italia, pp. 430 et seq. 25 Pullan, Rich and Poor in Renaissance Venice, p. 632.

NOTES

225

26 Elton, “An early Tudor Poor Law”; Leonard, Early History of English Poor Relief; Marshall, “The Old Poor Law”; Jordan, Philanthropy in England. 27 In the Protestant countries, the Reformation modified substantially the pattern described above. While in Catholic areas a substantial proportion of charity continued to flow to the church, in Protestant countries religion lost much ground as an object of private philanthropy. Jordan (Philanthropy in England) studied the records of ten English counties; he calculated that while about 54 percent of funds given to charity went to the Church between 1480 and 1540, this dropped to less than 15 percent after the Reformation. 28 In 1970 all forty-five Christian churches in the United States contributed a total of $764 million in benevolences, or 0.08 percent of GNP, while they spent much more than that amount on new construction and four times as much on congregational expenses (Kohler, Economics, p. 220). 29 Snape, English Monastic Finances, pp. 112 et seq. and Coulton, Medieval Panorama, p. 168. 30 Coulton, Medieval Panorama, p. 168. 31 Pullan, Rich and Poor in Renaissance Venice, pp. 180–84. 32 Jordan, Philanthropy in England. 33 Dati, Libro segreto, p. 57. See also pp. 113, 114, and 116. 34 Pitti, Cronica, pp. 40–41. 35 Grierson, “Commerce in the Dark Ages,” p. 131. 36 Sclafert, Cultures en Haute-Provence, pp. 11, 37. 37 Wolff, Toulouse, p. 61, n. 189. 38 For these and other examples, compare F.Redlich, “De Praeda Militari,” pp. 54ff. 39 For this and other examples see Grierson, Commerce in the Dark Ages, p. 135. 40 Mignet, Rivalité de François I et de Charles-Quint, vol. 2, pp. 452–61. 41 Grierson, Commerce in the Dark Ages, p. 140. 42 Duby, Guerriers et paysans, p. 60. 43 All studies of family living expenditures have confirmed Engels’s law: outlays for food increase proportionately and outlays for other goods and services decline as the level of total expenditure declines. According to H.Working, “…the relation between expenditure on food and total expenditure, presents a marked uniformity and comes close to this type of relation:

where F represents expenditure on food and T total expenditure” (Working, “Statistical Law,” p. 45). 44 The ultimate reason for which grains are the food of the poor must be sought in the ecological chain of energy. The wheat plant transforms solar energy directly into chemical energy. Animal meat, on the other hand, is the product of a double transformation process in which are added the “losses” of the primary process, connected with the growth of forage, and the “losses” of the secondary process, connected with the development and growth of the animal. 45 Cipolla, Prezzi e salari in Lombardia, p. 15. 46 Van der Wee, Antwerp Market, vol. 2, p. 391. 47 Fourastié, Machimsme et bien-être, p. 61. 48 See the Ordinationi per il buon governo di tutti li Hospitali del Contado di Perugia, Perugia, 1582, p. 3. 49 Cipolla, Cristofano, pp. 117–18. 50 Lebarge, A Baronial Household, p. 141. 51 Beltrami, Popolazione di Venezia, p. 222. 52 Rondinelli, Relazione, p. 59. 53 Fiochetto, Trattato, p. 19. 54 Besta, Vera narratione, p. 31. 55 Archivio di Stato di Cremona, Arch. Comunale, Inv. 4, t. 3. 56 Archivio di Stato di Milano, Fondo Sanità, Parte Antica, b. 273. 57 Presotto, “Genova,” p. 385. 58 Cipolla, Cristofano, pp. 156ff.

226

NOTES

59 Piponnier, Costume, p. 95. 60 Strachey, Portraits, p. 111. 61 De Muinck, “A Regent’s Family Budget,” p. 229. Each servant consumed, on an average, 187 pounds of meat and 77 pounds of butter a year. 62 Ramazzini, Le malattie dei lavoratori, p. 27. 63 Cipolla, Cristofano, p. 31, n. 1. 64 Mira, Vicende economiche, p. 208. 65 On Ambrogio di Negro see Doria, “Mezzo secolo,” p. 773, n. 9; on the Riccardi family see Malanima, I Riccardi di Firenze, pp. 127–29; on Cornelis de Jonge van Ellemeet see De Muinck, “A Regent’s Family Budget,” p. 224. 66 Gould, Economic Growth, p. 154. 67 Paolo di Messere Pace da Certaldo, II libro di buoni costumi, p. CLVI, n. 356. 68 Aleati, “Una dinastia di magnati medievali, p. 753. 69 On the significance of the episode, see Grierson, Numismatics. 70 Raoul Glaber, Les cinq livres, Book 2, par. 5. 71 Violante, “I Vescovi dell’Italia Centro-settentrionale,” p. 201. 72 Herlihy, “Treasure Hoards in the Italian Economy,” p. 5. 73 Duby, Guerriers et paysans, p. 183. 74 See Postan, “Investment in Medieval Agriculture,” pp. 579 and 581. 75 Rey, Finances royales, p. 608. 76 Ashton, “Deficit Finance,” pp. 15–16. 77 Fiumi, “Fioritura e decadenza,” p. 455. 78 Lane, Venice, p. 426. 79 Partner, “The Budget of the Roman Church,” pp. 263–66. 80 Vicens Vives, Manual de historia economica de España, Chapter 30. 81 Dietz, “English Government Finance,” p. 190. 82 Clamageran, Histoire de l’impôt, vols 1 and 2. 83 In a statement made to the Commons in 1467, King Edward IV of England declared, “I purpose to live upon my own and not to charge my subjects but in great and urgent causes concerning more the weal of themselves and also the defence of them and of this realm rather than my own pleasure.” The phrase “to live of his own” meant strictly that the king should live on what was lawfully his, namely on the rents from the Crown lands and on the income from his rights as feudal suzerain. 84 Porisini, La proprietà terriera nel Comune di Ravenna, pp. 31, 75–76. 85 At the middle of the nineteenth century in most European states, public expenditure still represented only 2 to 6 percent of national income. 86 Feasts and days of rejoicing were the occasion for distributions of charity, processions, tournaments, and—at least by our standards—less cheerful kinds of shows. In Spain, the marriage in 1680 of Charles II to MarieLouise was celebrated by the public execution of accused persons—some of them sentenced to perish in the flames. 87 For the above, compare Cipolla, Public Health, Chapter 1. 88 Fiumi, “Fioritura e decadenza,” vol. 117, p. 467. 89 Carabellese, La peste del 1348, pp. 7 et seq. 90 Wolff, “Prix et marché,” p. 465. 91 Lombardini, Pane e denaro a Bassano, pp. 29 et seq. 92 Basini, L’Uomo e il pane, p. 39. 93 Catellacci, “Ricordi,” pp. 384–85. 94 Bilanci della Repubblica di Venezia, vol. 1, book I, pp. ccix–ccxv. 95 Romano, “Economic aspects,” p. 80. 96 Formentini, Il Ducato di Milano, pp. 618 et seq. 97 Bean, War, p. 216.

NOTES

227

98 Supposing the public revenues amounted to 5 percent of national income; if military expenditures were as high as 50 percent of the public budget, they still amounted to only 2.5 percent of national income. In 1961, 1965, and 1970, military spending as a percent of GNP at factor cost was:

Arg enti na Aust ralia Can ada

Cub a Cze chos lova kia Egy pt Fran ce Iran

196 1 3

196 5 2

197 0 2

196 1 7

196 5 12

197 0 25

5

3

4

16

13

21

4

3

2

12

7

13

8

7

6

4

4

4

6

6

5

3

3

2

6

7

9

UK

6

6

5

6

6

4

US

9

8

8

4

4

8

USS R

6– 10

6– 10

6– 10

Israe l Jord an Sau di Ara bia Swe den Swit zerla nd

99 For what precedes, see Latouche, The Birth of Western Economy, p. 55. 100 For the Republic of Venice, see Stella, “La proprietà ecclesiastica”; for Pistoia, see Fioravanti, Memorie storiche di Pistoia, p. 444; for Ravenna, see Porisini, La proprietà terriera, p. 19; for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, see De Gennaro, L’abate Minervini, pp. 64–65. 101 Woodward, The Dissolution, p. 122; Cooper, “The Social Distribution of Land,” pp. 108–9; Youings, The Dissolution, passim. 102 Woodward, The Dissolution, p. 130. 103 Cipolla, “Propriété ecclésiastique,” p. 326. In a vast area (about 115,000 acres) of the irrigated plain, the church held more than 25 percent of the land while the nobility held about 60 percent. See Coppola, “L’Agricoltura,” p. 218. 104 Romani, La gente e i redditi del Piacentino, p. 88; Vaini, La distribuzione della proprietà terriera, p. 7. 105 For the Republic of Venice, see Stella, “La proprietà ecclesiastica.” For the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, see Galluzzi, Istoria del Granducato, vol. 3, p. 266. For Pistoia, see Fioravaniti, Memorie storiche di Pistoia, p. 44. 106 Monter, Calvin’s Geneva, p. 156. On secularization in Berne see Feller, Geschichte Berns, pp. 314–21. 107 The comparison was made even in the period in question. Cf. Woodward, The Dissolution, p. 4. 108 Conti, La formazione della struttura agraria, vol. 1, pp. 215–16. 109 Porisini, Proprietà terriera, p. 20. 110 Anselmi, Insediamenti, pp. 34 and 51. 111 Desaive, “Clergé rural,” pp. 924ff. 112 Derlange, “Cannes,” p. 30.

228

NOTES

113 On this important point see Gould, Economic Growth, Chapter 4.

2 THE FACTORS OF PRODUCTION 1 If we assume conventionally that age 15 separates children from adults and age 65 separates the labor force from the old, then the children are designated as 15P0 the labor force as 50P15 and the old as ∞P65 (in this typical notation the beginning age interval is shown by the subscript on the lower right of the letter P and the length of the interval by a subscript on the lower left). Thus: the dependency ratio may be written:

2 Beltrami, Popolazione di Venezia, p. 143, n. 17. 3 For the figures above, compare Battara, Popolazione di Firenze, p. 34, and Cipolla, Cristofano, pp. 35 and 44. It must be noted that, out of the total number of foundlings, females often exceeded males by a long way. Even in faraway China, females were predominantly the victims of infanticide. 4 Beltrami, Popolazione di Venezia, p. 143, n. 17. 5 Between 1680 and 1715 the population of Milan and its suburbs was about 120,000. In one large parish the birth rate was about 30 per thousand. Adopting this rate for the whole city, one may assume that in the city and its suburbs the births numbered approximately 3,600 per year. See Sella, “Popolazione di Milano,” pp. 471 and 478. 6 Archivio Mensa Vescovile di Pavia, b. 123, decree of 22 March 1590. 7 Frank, Medizinischen Polizey, vol. 1, p. 16. 8 See below, p. 64. 9 Archivio Stato Firenze, Sanità, Negozi, b. 161, c. 40 2 September 1631. 10 Wolff, Toulouse, p. 441. 11 Beltrami, Popolazione di Venezia, p. 201. 12 Coleman, The Economy of England, p. 73. 13 The census does not, however, include the town of Bristol. 14 Parenti, Popolazione della Toscana, pp. 73 and 126. 15 Beloch, Bevölkerungsgeschichte Italiens, vol. 1, pp. 73–79. 16 Ruiz Martin, “Demografia ecclesiastica,” p. 685. 17 Reinhard, Armengaud, Dupaquier, Histoire générale de la population, pp. 192–93. 18 For the data for 1377 see Russell, “The Clerical Population,” pp. 177–212. For the data relating to the first decades of the sixteenth century see Woodward, The Dissolution of the Monasteries, p. 2. See also Knowles, Religious Orders, vol. 2, pp. 256–57. 19 Kjoczowski, “La Population ecclésiastique,” passim. 20 Cipolla, Public Health, Chapter 2. 21 Cipolla, “The Professions,” pp. 37–52. 22 Gade, Hanseatic Control, p. 16. 23 Coryat, Crudities, vol. 2, p. 38. 24 Montaigne, Journal, p. 142. 25 Dallington, Survey of Tuscany, p. 48. 26 Battara, Popolazione di Firenze, pp. 58 and 66. 27 Graf, Il Cinquecento, p. 265. 28 For the catalogue see Bloch, Die Prostitution, vol. 2, part I, p. 123. On the estimates of the number of official prostitutes see Beloch, Bevölkerungsgeschichte, vol. 3, p. 101. 29 Bloch, Die Prostitution, vol. 2, part I, p. 254; and Delumeau, Rome, p. 420. 30 Coryat, Crudities, vol. 2, p. 46. 31 Dallington, Survey of Tuscany, p. 48.

NOTES

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77

229

D’Ancona, in Montaigne, Journal, pp. 303 n. Scavizzi, “Attività edilizia,” p. 175, n. 7. Cipolla, “Storia delle epidemie,” pp. 117–18. Cipolla, “Popolazione Lombarda,” p. 152. Coleman, The Economy of England, p. 73. Allison, “Elizabethan Village,” pp. 91–103. Noel, “Paroisse de Laguiole,” pp. 199–223. For all above, see Mazzaoui, “Veronese Textile Artisans.” Cipolla, Prezzi, salari, p. 14. For Venice see Sella, Commerci e industrie a Venezia, p. 124; for Florence and Prato see Di Agresti, Aspetti di vita, p. 93. Hill, Puritanism, p. 43. Gould, Economic Growth, pp. 75 et seq. Villermé, Tableau, vol. 2, p. 245. Villani, Cronica, book 11. For above, see Cipolla, Literacy, pp. 45–47. Cipolla, Literacy, pp. 60–61. Unwin, Economic History, pp. 92–99. Hicks, A Theory, pp. 141–42. See for all Pollard, “Fixed Capital.” Duby, The Early Growth, p. 26. Duby, L’Economie rurale, vol. I, p. 74. According to Hodgen (“Domesday Water Mills”) one gets from the Domesday Book the figure of 5,624 water mills for England at the end of the eleventh century. According to Lennard (Rural England, p. 278), however, “the figure of 5,624 given by Miss Hodgen as the total number of Domesday mills is almost certainly too low.” Muendel, “The Horizontal Mills.” Horn and Born, The Barns. Duby, The Early Growth, p. 196. ibid., p. 193. Rotelli, Economia agraria, p. 20. Slicher Van Bath, Agrarian History, pp. 180–81. Beretta, Pagine, p. 84. Galassi, Campagna Imolese, p. 112. Sclafert, Cultures en Haute-Provence, pp. 140–48. Finberg, Agrarian History, vol. 4, p. 413. Petty, “Verbum sapienti,” p. 106. Sclafert, Cultures en Haute-Provence, p. 148. On the history of epizootics, see the works cited in Haeser, Bibliotheca epidemiographica, p. 17. Annales Laurissenses vel Einhardi, a. 791. Stow, Annales, p. 200. Faber, “Cattle-plague.” Doria, Uomini e terre, p. 52. ibid. Braudel, Civilisation matérielle, p. 267. Aleati and Bianchi, Farmacie pavesi, p. 31. Poni, “Archéologie,” p. 2. Felloni, Gli Investimenti Finanziari, p. 49. Contamine, “Consommation et demande militaires,” p. 8. Zanetti, Problemi alimentari, pp. 56–71.

230

NOTES

78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

Spengler, “Population Problem,” p. 196. Gould, Economic Growth, pp. 39, 81, 82. Pugliese, Condizioni economiche, Table 2. Devèze, Histoire des fôrets, pp. 52–53. Coleman, “Naval Dockyards,” p. 160. Communication by H.Soly at the ninth week of the Instituto Datini at Prato. Barbour, Capitalism in Amsterdam, p. 68. Poni, “All’origine del sistema di fabbrica,” p. 466. Cipolla, “Storia del lavoro,” pp. 12–13.

3 PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION 1 2 3 4 5

Schumpeter, “The Creative Response,” p. 150. Chronique de Robert de Torigny, p. 238. Epistole Hugonis, pp. 318–19. Leo Di Ostia, Cronica, III, p. 26. On the influence of sources of energy upon human history, see Cipolla, Economic History of World Population, Chapter 2. 6 For wheat only, in England, yields were:

1200–49: 1250–99: 1300–49: 1350–99: 1400–49: 1450–99:

2.9 4.2 3.9 5.2 4.1 4.9

Slicher van Bath, “Accounts and Diaries,” p. 22. The discrepancy between Slicher van Bath’s data in Table 3.2 and those of the same author in Table 3.1 arises from the fact that data in Table 3.1 are averages of the yields of wheat, rye, barley, and oats, while those of Table 3.2 are yields of wheat only. 7 E.LeRoy Ladurie, in a moment of polemical skepticism, has defined such figures above as a “mirage chiffré (numerical mirage).” See LeRoy Ladurie, Paysans de Languedoc, and Morineau, Les Faux-semblants. 8 Pini, “La Viticultura,” p. 74. 9 Duby, The Early Growth, pp. 27 and 189. 10 Slicher van Bath, Agrarian History, pp. 182, 334, 335. 11 Slicher van Bath, pp. 334–35; and Benassar, L’Alimentation d’une Capitale, p. 53. 12 Lastri, L’Osservatore, pp. 163–67. 13 According to a document published by Carmona, “Sull’economia Toscana,” p. 43, among the weavers, besides the 878 men and 1,457 women, there were also 358 children. 14 A “piece” was about 35 yards in length. 15 The figures reveal that, during the decline of the industry in the period 1604–27 (a) the larger firms survived, and (b) among the weavers employment of males diminished far more than employment of females. 16 Weavers were not necessarily concentrated in the workshops, that is, in the firms. They usually worked at home, on commission from the “merchants.” See above, p. 95. 17 Edler de Roover, “Andrea Bianchi,” p. 248. 18 Massa, Un’impresa serica genovese, pp. 109–10.

NOTES

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

231

Archivio di Stato di Milano, Commercio, P.A., b, 228. Sella, Commerci e Industrie a Venezia, p. 127. Coleman, The Economy of England, p. 78. Blanchard, “Labour productivity,” p. 3. Hammersley, “The Charcoal Iron Industry.” Cipolla, Guns and Sails, p. 154. Scavia, Industria della Carta, p. 10. Schubert, British Iron Industry, p. 345. See for instance Sclafert, Culture en Haute-Provence, p. 9. Darby, A New Historical Geography, p. 61. Fourquin, Histoire économique, p. 335. Sclafert, Culture en Haute-Provence, p. 88. Forquin, Histoire économique, p. 348. Gould, Economic Growth, p. 9. Ramazzini, Le malattie dei lavoratori, Chapter IV. Dallington, Survey of Tuscany, pp. 15–16. Barrow, Travels in China, p. 67. Garosi, Siena, p. 11. Ramazzini, Le malattie, pp. 6, 11, 20.

4 THE URBAN REVOLUTION: THE COMMUNES 1 2 3 4

Pirenne, Medieval Cities. Ennen, “Different Types,” pp. 399–411. Sestan, “Città comunale italiana,” pp. 75–95. Gesta Federici, 2, 12, RRGGSS 54.

5 POPULATION: TRENDS AND PLAGUES 1 The evidence for this growth is discussed in Genicot, “On the Evidence of Growth of Population,” pp. 14–23. 2 Hajnal, “European Marriage Patterns,” pp. 101–40. 3 The Italian missionary, Father Matteo Ricci, reported from China in the sixteenth century that “celibacy is not approved of and polygamy is permitted” (Gallagher, The Journals, p. 97). At the end of the eighteenth century, the Englishman John Barrow reported from China, “Public opinion considers celibacy as disgraceful and a sort of infamy is attached to a man who continues unmarried beyond a certain time of life” (Barrow, Travels, pp. 398– 99). 4 Moryson, Itinerary, pp. 156 and 409. 5 ibid., p. 296. 6 Wrigley, Population and History, pp. 86–87. 7 ibid., p. 119. 8 ibid., p. 124. 9 Boase, Death in the Middle Ages. 10 Infant mortality relates infant deaths (number of children dying at less than one year of age) to live births in the same year. The infant mortality rate is thus obtained by dividing the number of deaths of infants during a calendar year by the number of live births in the same period and by multiplying the result by 1,000. Adolescent

232

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

NOTES

mortality relates the number of deaths of children one to nine years old during a calendar year to the population of the same age group. On what precedes, see Rosen, From Medical Police, p. 44, and Cipolla, The Bills of Mortality of Florence. For the statement by the Mayor of Padua see Ferrari, L’ufficio della Sanità, p. 86, n. 2. For the statement by Ramazzini, see Ramazzini, Malattie dei Lavoratori, Chapter XL. Le Roy Ladurie, “L’Histoire immobile,” p. 682. Zinsser, Rats, Lice and History, pp. 111ff. Benaglio, “Relazione della carestia,” pp. 422–23. Pullan, Rich and Poor, pp. 243ff. For Poland, see Hoffmann, Warfare, Weather and a Rural Economy, p. 285; for Venice, Sanuto, Diarii, XLVI, col. 380 and 612; for Bergamo, Benaglio, “Relazione della carestia,” pp. 419–21. Segni, Trattato, p. 55. Johnsson, Storia della peste di Busto Arsizio, p. 15. As has been said, “War and famine have probably always taken their toll of human life more through the intermediary of the microbe than by starvation and the sword” (Burnett White, Natural History of Infectious Disease, p. 12). Allix, L’Oisans, p. 32. Fiumi, “La popolazione del territorio volterrano-sangimignanese,” p. 283. For England see Shrewsbury, Bubonic Plague, p. 231; for Venice see Carbone, Provveditori, p. 8; for Paris see Franklin, Vie privée, vol. 14, pp. 18–75; for Barcelona see Nadal, Población española, p. 596. Hull, The Economic Writings, vol. 2, p. 347. ibid., vol. 1, p. 109. ibid., vol. 2, pp. 369–70. Mols, Introduction, vol. 2, p. 334. Helleiner, “The Vital Revolution,” p. 85.

6 TECHNOLOGY 1 Lilley, “Technological Progress,” p. 188. See also Gould, Economic Growth, pp. 327ff. 2 Compare Finley, “Technical Innovation,” pp. 29–45; Kiechle, “Probleme der Stagnation;” and Pleket, “Technology and Society,” pp. 1–24. 3 On the windmills of antiquity, see Moritz, Grain-mills. 4 The episode is recounted by Suetonius in Chapter 18 of his Life of Vespasian. 5 See the observations by Landes, Engineering in the Ancient World. 6 Lilley, “Technological Progress,” p. 188. 7 White, “Expansion of Technology,” p. 143. 8 White, “Cultural Climates,” p. 172. 9 White, “Expansion of Technology,” p. 147. 10 Leighton, Transport and Communication, p. 105. 11 Needham, Science and Civilization, vol. 4, pp. 303–27. 12 White, “Expansion of Technology,” p. 153. 13 For all that precedes, see Duby, The Early Growth, pp. 15, 75–76, 194–95. 14 On all that precedes, see Bautier, “Les plus anciennes mentions de moulins,” pp. 569ff. and Carus-Wilson, An Industrial Revolution. 15 White, “Expansion of Technology,” p. 157. 16 Honig, “De Molens,” p. 79. 17 See Cipolla, The Economic History of World Population, Chapter 2.

NOTES

233

18 Compare Lane, “The Economic Meaning of the Invention of the Compass.” Compare also Taylor, “Mathematics and the Navigator.” 19 Narducci, “Tre prediche,” pp. 125–26, and Rosen, “The Invention of the Eyeglasses,” pp. 13–46 and 183–218. 20 We know, for example, that at the beginning of the fourteenth century the normal size of a Hanseatic ship was about 75 tons. Around 1400, the traditional “Kogge” was replaced by larger vessels of the “Holk” type. Around 1440 the average size of the Hanseatic vessels was about 150 tons. Thirty years later, when the carvel-type vessels were introduced in the Hanseatic fleet, the average tonnage was about 300 tons. For the French-English wine trade it has been observed that early in the fifteenth century few ships can have carried more than 100 tuns of wine. But by the middle of the century ships from Bordeaux brought an average of 150 tuns, and there were a few ships which could carry as many as 500 tuns of wine. For Portuguese ships, it has been suggested that between 1450 and 1550 the average tonnage at least doubled. In Venice about 1450, anything over 200 tons was considered big. Later, 400 tons became a normal size for most cogs, and by the mid-sixteenth century there were numerous Venetian carracks of 600 to 700 tons. 21 White, The Flavor of Early Renaissance Technology. 22 Cipolla, Money, Prices and Civilization, p. 61. 23 Walker, “The Origins of the Machine Age,” pp. 591–92. 24 Annali, vol. 1, p. 248. 25 The pages which follow are partially derived from an article by the author which appeared under the title “The Diffusion of Innovations in Early Modern Europe,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, 14, 1972. I should like to express my thanks to the journal and to the Cambridge University Press for kindly giving me permission to reproduce here several pages of the article in question. 26 On the whole story, consult W.H.Chaloner, “Sir Thomas Lombe.” 27 Oakeshott, Political Education, p. 15. 28 Britten, Old Clocks and Their Makers, p. 272. 29 Archivio di Stato di Milano, Commercio, P.A., b, 264/fasc. 2. 30 Casoni, “Note sull’artiglieria veneta,” pp. 177–80. 31 Cipolla, Guns and Sails, p. 54, n. 1. 32 Ullyett, British Clocks and Clockmakers, p. 18. 33 Amburger, Die Familie Marselis. 34 Smith, Old Scottish Clockmakers, p. 323. 35 Luzzatto, Studi di Storia Economica, pp. 42–43. 36 Fanfani, Storia del lavoro in Italia, pp. 147–48. 37 See above, p. 84. 38 Cipolla, L’Economia Milanese, p. 353. 39 Cipolla, Guns and Sails, p. 69, n. 2. 40 Svenskt Biografiskt Lexicon ad vocem De Besche. 41 Cipolla, Clocks and Culture, pp. 65ff.; Kenyon, The Glass Industry of the Weald; Cunningham, Alien Immigrants; Bodmer, Der Einfluss der Refugianten. 42 Frankel, The Economic Impact on Underdeveloped Societies, pp. 22–24. 43 Quoted and translated by Barbour, Dutch and English Merchant Shipping, p. 234.

7 ENTERPRISE, CREDIT, AND MONEY 1 It is possible that double-entry bookkeeping developed in Tuscany in the thirteenth century. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries this type of accounting spread to other Italian cities. See De Roover, “Aux Origines d’une Technique,” and Melis, Storia della Ragioneria. Prototypes of marine insurance may have emerged in the thirteenth century, but the earliest extant documents which undoubtedly refer to insurance contracts go back to

234

NOTES

2 3 4 5

6 7 8

the fourteenth century. Genoa long remained the major center for this type of business. See Edler De Roover, “Marine Insurance.” From the seventeenth century on, the major center of insurance in Europe was London. Postan, “Credit in Medieval Trade,” pp. 65–71. The original document, in Latin, is preserved in the Archive of Genoa. The English translation is by Lopez and Raymond, Medieval Trade, pp. 182–83. Ferretto, “Giovanni Mauro di Carignano,” pp. 43–44. Kedar, Merchants in Crisis, pp. 25ff. One form of participation in maritime trade was the sea loan. Its main peculiarity was that the borrower pledged the return of the loan only on condition that the ship carrying the borrowed money or the goods purchased with it safely completed its voyage. Sea loans lost their popularity at the same time that the commenda did, in the second half of the thirteenth century. Among the many who have written on the subject, see Sapori, “Le Compagnie Mercantili Toscane,” pp. 803–05. De Roover, Lettres de Change. In the sendeve a master entrusted an agent with goods. In the vera societas only one of the parties provided capital. The other carried out the commercial operation and profit and losses were usually shared equally. In the contrapositio each partner brought his share of capital and profits were shared in proportion to the capital invested. In the complete partnership partners pledged in common all or the greater part of their fortunes. For more details see Dollinger, The German Hansa, pp. 166–67.

8 PRODUCTION, INCOMES, AND CONSUMPTION: 1000–1500 1 For a more detailed account of all that precedes, see Smith, An Historical Geography and for the Drang nach Osten, see also Dollinger, The German Hansa. 2 Giovanni Villani, Cronica, book 11, Chapter 94. The English translation is by Lopez and Raymond, Medieval Trade, pp. 71–74. 3 The moggio was a dry measure equal to 16.59 bushels. 4 Bonvesin della Riva, De Magnalibus Urbis Mediolani, pp. 67–114. For an English translation of the relevant passages see Lopez and Raymond, Medieval Trade, pp. 61–69. 5 Dante, Comedy, Paradise 15, translation by L. Binyon. 6 Ricobaldus, Historia Universalis, in R.R. II S.S., vol. 9, col. 128. On the relation between Ricolbaldo’s text and the successive texts of Flamma and of De Mussis, as well as on contemporary ideas of economic progress, cf. Rubinstein, ‘Some Ideas on Municipal Progress,” pp. 165–83, and Herlihy, Pistoia, pp. 1–5. 7 Flamma, “Opusculum” in R.R. II S.S., vol. 12, cols 1033–4. 8 In Piacenza, the first fireplaces appeared after 1320. In Rome they were still rare in 1368. 9 The Emperor Charles V had a dozen forks among his possessions, but the courtiers of Henry III of France were still laughed at for the amount of food they lost on the way to their mouths. As to handkerchiefs, one must keep in mind that the height of good manners in the Middle Ages was to use only the left hand to blow one’s nose at the table. In the sixteenth century the middle class had begun to use the sleeve, rather than the fingers. Then the handkerchief slowly came to be adopted. Henry IV of France allegedly possessed five handkerchiefs and this was thought worthy of note. 10 On the famine of 1317 see Lucas, “The Great European Famine”; on that of 1346–47 see Pinto, “Firenze e la carestia.” 11 Israel, Dutch Primacy, p. 4. 12 Concerning the effects of the plague on the collective psychology, and on the art forms, consult, among others, Langer, “Next Assignment,” pp. 283–304; Meiss, Painting; Brossolet, “L’Influence de la peste.” 13 Goldthwaite, The Building of Renaissance Florence, p. 354. 14 De Mussis, “Chronic Placentium,” in RR.II S.S., vol. XVI, cols 582–84. 15 Dyer, Standards of Living in the Later Middle-Ages, pp. 276–77.

NOTES

235

9 THE EMERGENCE OF THE MODERN AGE 1 Ashtor, “Che cosa sapevano i geografi arabi dell’Europa occidentale?” 2 Andreades, “The Economic Life of the Byzantine Empire.” 3 On all that precedes, see Ashtor, “Observations on Venetian Trade”; Ashtor, “Levantine Sugar Industry”, Ashtor, “Aspetti della espansione italiana”; Irigoin, “Les Débuts de l’emploi du papier à Byzance.” 4 Charleston, “The Import of Venetian Glass into the Near East.” 5 Lopez, “Venezia,” pp. 53–59. 6 Sevcenko, “The Decline of Byzantium,” pp. 176ff., and Geanakoplos, “A Byzantine Look at the Renaissance,” pp. 157–162. 7 Lambros, “Ipomnina tou Kardinaliou Vissarionos,” pp. 15–27, and Keller, “A Byzantine Admirer of Western Progress,” pp. 343–48. 8 Cipolla, Guns and Sails, p. 89. For an analysis of the “relative decline” of China compared to Europe on the technological plane from the fourteenth century onward, see Elvin, The Patterns of the Chinese Past, pp. 177–78 and Chapter 14. 9 White, “Expansion of Technology,” p. 157. 10 On the preceding, cf. Cipolla, Guns and Sails, pp. 15–18 and 137. 11 Hudson, Europe and China, p. 268. 12 Brading and Cross, “Colonial silver mining,” pp. 560ff. 13 Cipolla, “Saggio di Interesse”; Barbour, Capitalism in Amsterdam, pp. 85ff.; Homer, Interest Rates, p. 128. 14 Attmann, The Russian and Polish Markets, pp. 119ff. 15 Throughout the sixteenth century and at the beginning of the seventeenth, nearly 80 percent of European imports from the East consisted of pepper, other spices, and dyes. During the seventeenth century, textiles acquired greater importance and toward the end of the century made up about 60 percent of imports into Europe by the English and Dutch East India Companies. Compare Glamann, Dutch-Asiatic Trade, pp. 13, 14; and Pach, ‘The Role of East-Central Europe,” pp. 220–22. 16 Glamman, Dutch-Asiatic Trade, p. 58. 17 Van Linschoten, The Voyage to the East Indies, vol. 1, p. 10. Western Europe’s trade with the Baltic also showed a deficit. It has been estimated that, at the end of the sixteenth century and the beginning of the seventeenth, of the total value of the goods in transit through the Sound, 70 percent went from the Baltic toward the West as against 30 percent which went in the opposite direction. The deficit was settled with western exports of silver. Compare Attman, The Russian and Polish Markets, pp. 119ff. 18 Carletti, Ragionamenti, p. 189. 19 Hernandes, Rerum Medicarum. 20 D’Orta and Monardes, Dell’Historia de i semplici aromati, part II, p. 19. On Garcia d’Orta and Nicolas Monardes, see Boxer, Two Pioneers of Tropical Medicine. 21 In the Low Countries, in the period 1557–1710, per capita consumption of grain was about one liter a day. In the decade 1781–91, consumption fell to 0.6 liters because, in the interval, the potato had in part replaced grain in daily food consumption. In Ireland, the rate of substitution was very much higher. For what precedes, see Vandenbroeke, “Cultivation and Consumption of the Potato,” pp. 28–29. With reference to the classic case of Ireland, see Connell, The Population of Ireland, Chapter 5, and Davidson, “The History of the Potato and Its Progress in Ireland”. In general, see Salaman, History and Social Influence of the Potato. Barrow, Travels in China, p. 398n., wrote at the end of the eighteenth century, “The great advantage of a potato crop is the certainty of its success. Were a general failure of this root to take place, as sometimes happens to crops of rice, Ireland, in its present state, would experience all the horrors that attend a famine in some of the provinces of China.” In this brief, inconspicuous footnote Barrow was amazingly prophetic. Less than five decades after he wrote these words the potato crops failed in Ireland and the country experienced “all the horrors that attend a famine in some of the provinces of China.”

236

NOTES

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37

Morse, The Chronicles of the East India Company, vol. 1, pp. 9, 125, and 158. Lionardo di Capua, Parere, p. 110. Duncan, Avis salutaire. Among his followers see Tissot, Santé des gens de lettres, pp. 189ff. Cole, Trends in Eighteenth Century Smuggling, p. 396. On this point consult in particular the erudite work of Jones, Ancients and Moderns. Dijksterhuis, The Mechanization of the World Picture. Letwin, The Origins of Scientific Economics, pp. 99–100. Stone, “Elizabethan Overseas Trade,” p. 30. Annali della fabbrica del Duomo, vol. 1, pp. 209–10. As the Milanese doctor G.B. Silvatico asserted in 1607, paraphrasing a sentence of Galen, “qui medicus esse vult optimus, is prius philosophus sit necesse est.” See Cipolla, Public Health. Atkinson, Les nouveaux horizons, p. 10. Matarazzo, “Cronaca della città di Perugia,” p. 3. Calegari, “Legname e costruzioni navali,” p. 94. Calegari, ibid., and Sella, Salari e lavoro, Appendix, Table IX. Coleman, The Economy of England, p. 23. See pp. 269–70 of this book.

10 THE CHANGING BALANCE OF ECONOMIC POWER IN EUROPE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

For a salutary reaction to this fashion, see Schöffer, “Holland’s Golden Age,” pp. 82–107. Guicciardini, “Relazione di Spagna,” p. 131. Cited in Luzzatto, Storia economica, vol. 1, p. 139. On the importance of exports to the American colonies see Vilar, Oro e moneta, pp. 107ff. Exports consisted mainly of oil, wine, vinegar, flour, silks, velvets, shoes, hats, textiles, glass, soap, weapons of all kinds, and so on. The simile is by Tawney, Business and Politics, p. 28. Sevrano Mangas, Armadas y flotas de la Plata, p. 316. Trevor-Davies, Spain in Decline, pp. 92–93 and Kagan, Students and Society in Early Modern Spain. For the above, see Sella, “Venetian Woollen Industry,” pp. 113–15. State Papers, Henry VIII, edition of 1830–52, volume VII (1849), p. 226 (Sir Nicholas Carew and Richard Sampson to Henry VIII from Bologna, 12 December 1529). Relazione del Ducato di Milano di G.Basadonna, p. 333. Sella, “Venetian Woollen Industry,” p. 114. ibid., p. 116. Pullan, Crisis and Change, pp. 8–9. Quoted in Sella, “Industrial Production,” p. 247. For all that precedes, compare Cipolla, “The Decline of Italy: The Case of a Fully Matured Economy,” p. 203. Gualdo, Relatione, p. 87. Meroni, Cremona fedelissima, vol. 2, pp. 19–21. Cipolla, “The Decline of Italy,” p. 197. Sivori, Il tramonto dell’industria serica, p. 896. Sella, Commerci e industrie, p. 126. Borelli, Un Patriziato della Terraferma Veneta, p. 26. Sella, Crisis and Continuity, p. 59. Romano, “A Florence,” pp. 508–11. Parenti, Prime Ricerche, Chapter III, and Pullan, “Wage Earners,” pp. 146–74. Moryson, Itinerary, p. 419. Cipolla, “Four Centuries of Italian Demographic Development,” p. 573.

NOTES

237

27 On the economic history of Holland, consult Baasch, Holländische Wirtschaftsgeschichte, which is methodical and complete. Decidedly more brilliant is Barbour, Capitalism in Amsterdam; see also Van Houtte, Economische en Sociale Geschiedenis; Boxer, The Dutch Seaborne Empire; and Israel, Dutch Primacy. 28 On the development of the southern Low Countries in the Middle Ages, consult the classic work by Pirenne, Histoire de Belgique, and the brief outline of Doehaerd, “L’expansion économique belge au Moyen Age.” On the development of Antwerp and the decline of Bruges, see the brilliant and classic article by Van Houtte, “La genèse du grand marché international d’Anvers à la fin du Moyen Age,” and more recently Van Der Wee, Antwerp Market. 29 Guicciardini, Descrittione, p. 176. 30 With reference to Holland’s poor endowment in natural resources, a seventeenth-century Englishman described the country as “such a spot as if God had reserved it as a place only to dig turf out of.” 31 Burke, Venice and Amsterdam. 32 Wilson, The Dutch Republic, pp. 15–18. 33 In admitting foreign craftsmen, Amsterdam compromised with guild opposition, found housing for newcomers, and offered incentives to masters deemed capable of starting new industries or improving techniques in those already established. The status of citizen could be acquired at a cost of 8 florins until 1622, when it was raised to 14 florins. Barbour, Capitalism in Amsterdam, pp. 15–16. 34 On this famous personage, consult Dahlgren, Louis de Geer. 35 Jeannin, L’Europe du Nord-Ouest, pp. 70–71. 36 Van Uytven, “The Fulling Mill,” p. 12. 37 Bulletins of prices quoted on the Amsterdam Commodities Exchange were published from 1585 and circulated throughout Europe. In 1634 these bulletins gave the prices of 359 commodities. In 1686 the list increased to 550 commodities. 38 Jeannin, L’Europe du Nord-Ouest, p. 75. 39 Clément, Lettres, vol. 6, p. 264. For modern estimates of the size of the Dutch fleet, consult Vogel, “Handelsflotten,” pp. 268–334; and Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil, pp. 204–05. According to Christensen, Dutch Trade to the Baltic, p. 94, a “most reliable calculation from the Dutch States Provincial” of 1636 estimated the size of the Dutch merchant navy trading to the Baltic, Norway, and France at 1,050 ships. 40 Elias, Het Voorspel, p. 60. 41 Unger, “Dutch Ship Design,” p. 409. 42 Defoe, A Plan of the English Commerce, p. 192. 43 Christensen, Dutch Trade to the Baltic, passim. 44 In some cases, Dutch entrepreneurs found it more convenient to transform raw materials into finished products at the source where the raw materials were available. De Geer and the Tripps operated iron foundries in Sweden. The product, in the shape of iron bars and iron cannon, was imported into the United Provinces: a good deal of it was re-exported, but the profits of course were retained in Amsterdam. 45 Dion, Histoire de la vigne, pp. 426–27. 46 On Dutch horology see Britten, Old Clocks, pp. 246ff.; on precision instruments see Barbour, Capitalism in Amsterdam, p. 63n; on cartography and map production, see Tooley, Maps and Map Makers, pp. 21 and 29. 47 Van der Woude, “Het Noorderkwartier,” vol. 2, p. 320, Table 5.11. 48 Barbour, Dutch and English Merchant Shipping, p. 239. 49 The average rate of interest in Amsterdam was about 3 percent when it was 6 percent in London, and Josiah Child in 1665 considered this as the “causa causans of all the other causes of riches in that people.” Compare Wilson, The Dutch Republic, pp. 33–34, and Homer, A History of Interest Rates, p. 128. 50 Unger, “Dutch Ship Design,” p. 405. In accordance with the character of technological development before the Industrial Revolution, Dutch shipbuilding was “exclusively based on tradition and experience: there was no question of scientific shipbuilding.” Compare Van Kampen, Scheepsbouw, p. 240. 51 Defensibility and speed were sacrificed by private shipowners since in most cases their ships could count on the protection of the Dutch navy. For all that precedes, see Unger, “Dutch Ship Design,” pp. 406–08.

238

52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85

86 87 88 89 90

NOTES

See above, p. 244. Dion, Histoire de la vigne, p. 427. Price, Culture and Society in the Dutch Republic. Coleman, The Economy of England, p. 49. For the preceding, see Van Houtte, “Anvers au XVe et XVIe siècles,” p. 251. Van der Wee, Antwerp, vol. 2, p. 131. For all this, consult Schulte, Geschichte des Mittelalterlichen Handels. Fisher, “Commercial Trends and Policy,” pp. 154–55; Gould, The Great Debasement, pp. 126ff. For all that precedes, see Coleman, The Economy of England, pp. 61ff. Fisher, “Commercial Trends and Policy,” pp. 153ff. ibid., pp. 160, 169, 172. Coleman, The Economy of England, p. 64. J.Gee, The Trade and Navigation of Great Britain, London, 1738, Chapter 1, p. 7. See Hope, A New History, p. 172, and Challis, “Spanish Bullion,” p. 384. Hope, A New History, p. 189. Stow, Annales, pp. 1038–40. Violet, Mysteries and Secrets of Trade, pp. 17–18. Cunningham, Alien Immigrants. See the documents reproduced by Thirsk and Cooper, Seventeenth-Century Economic Documents, pp. 713 and 737. Stoye, English Travelers, pp. 22 and ff. Henry VIII’s quarantine regulations, the “Plague Orders” of Elizabeth, and the College of Physicians at London were all instituted on Italian models. Copeman, Doctors and Disease, p. 169; and Clark, Royal College of Physicians, vol. 1, pp. 58ff. Stow, Annales, p. 1038. Britten, Old Clocks, p. 77. Tawney and Power, Tudor Economic Documents, vol. 1, pp. 231–38. Stow, Annales, p. 1025. Nef, British Coal Industry, vol. 1, p. 214. For the movement of prices, see Coleman, The Economy of England, pp. 100–02. For additional information, see Cipolla, Guns and Sails, pp. 62–64. ibid., p. 44, n. 2. ibid., p. 64. Stow, Annales, p. 1025. Nef, British Coal Industry, vol. 1, pp. 19–20, 36, 208. Hicks, A Theory of Economic History, p. 147. Nef, The Conquest of the Material World, p. 125, talks of two hundred workers employed in the cannon foundries of John Browne at the beginning of the seventeenth century. But in all likelihood the number includes charcoal burners and transport workers. (Cipolla, Guns and Sails, p. 153). Attendants to the furnaces were always relatively few throughout the seventeenth century. Nef, “The Conquest of the Material World,” pp. 124ff.; Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 389; Coleman, “Naval Dockyards,” pp. 189ff. Davis, “English Foreign Trade 1700–1774,” p. 109. Compare also Davis, “English Foreign Trade 1660–1700,” pp. 78–98. Deane, The First Industrial Revolution, p. 53. ibid., p. 57. ibid., pp. 66–68.

EPILOGUE

NOTES

239

1 On the origins and history of the term “Industrial Revolution,” consult Bezançon, “The Early Use of the Term Industrial Revolution.” On the Industrial Revolution see, among many others, apart from the classic works of Mantoux and Ashton, the volumes of Beales, The Industrial Revolution; Deane, The First Industrial Revolution; Mathias, The First Industrial Nation; Fohlen, Qu’est-ce que la Révolution Industrielle; Crouzet, Capital Formation in the Industrial Revolution; Musson, Science, Technology and Economic Growth; Drake, Population in Industrialization. 2 Cederna, I Vandali, p. 8. 3 Waddington, The Ethical Animal, p. 15.

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HISTORICAL ATLASES Atlas Historique Belfram, ed. F.Michel, B.Anglivel and A.Rigade, Paris, 1969. Atlas of World History, ed. R.R.Palmer, Chicago, 1965. British History Atlas, ed. M.Gilbert, London, 1968. Historical Atlas, ed. W.R.Shepherd, New York, 1980. Historical Atlas of the Muslim Peoples, ed. H.A.R.Gibb, Cambridge, Mass., 1957. Historischer Atlas der Schweiz, ed. H.Amman and K.Schib, Aarau, 1958. Nouvel Atlas historique, ed. P.Serryn and R.Plasselle, n.d. Russian History Atlas, ed. M.Gilbert, London, 1972. Westermanns Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte, ed. H.E.Stier and Associates, Berlin, 1956.

INDEX

Abbasid Dynasty 209 active population 7, 54–9; occupational distribution 60–75 adolescents 54, 56, 127–8 age: distribution (population) 54–7, 123; marriage trends 124–6 agriculture 185–6, 188, 276; and economic trends 198, 200, 203; fixed capital 80–5, 86; grain reserves 8, 9, 42–3, 100–3; and income distribution 7, 8, 9; labor 54, 62–3, 73–5; land resources 91–3; livestock 81–4, 86, 102–3, 105, 110; organization/manors 94; productivity 100–3, 105, 108; sharecropping 7, 54, 94; technology 74, 138–40 Alberghetti, Sigismondo 156, 249 Alburquerque, Alfonso de 212 Alsace, Count Philippe d’ 43 Alvarez, Duke of Alva 265 Ambrogio di Negro 32 Ambrose, Bishop of Milan 117 Amsterdam 253–4 Anglicus, Robertus 151 animism 153, 154 apprenticeships 77–8 Arab Empire 189, 209, 210, 211 armaments see weapons/weaponry Arte della Lana 195 Arte di Calimala 192, l95 Artevelde, Jacob van 202 artisans 8, 54, 74–7, 79, 84, 86, 95, 202, 230 Ashton, T.S. 272 associationism 79

Atkinson, G. 231 Atlantic Europe (expansion) 212 Bacon, Francis 230 Badoer, Ambassador 238 Baltic trade 250–1, 253, 255 Banco de’Bardi 200 banco della piazza di Rialto 182 Banco di San Giorgio 38, 214, 216–17 Baner, Johan G. 21 Bank of Amsterdam 234 Bank of Hamburg 21, 234 bankruptcies 199, 200, 234, 240 banks/bankers 21, 38, 181–2, 200, 202, 208, 214, 216–17, 234 Barbarossa, Frederic 121 barns 81 Barrow, John 112 barter, 21, 168–9 Basadonna, Ambassador 242 Baumgartner company 208 Bayazed I, Sultan 211 Bayning, Paul 265 Beche, Abraham De 158 Beche, Hubert De 158 beggars 10, 11, 12–13, 16, 129 Beloch, K.J. 67 Benaglio, M.A. 130 Benzi, Ugo 99, 127 Benzoni, Fra Gerolama 222 Beranger, Raymond, Count of Barcelona 20 Berry, Mary 30 Bessarion, Cardinal Johannes 210, 211 Besta, Fabio 44 Beuil, Count of 20 Bianca of Castilla 127 bills of exchange 163 258

INDEX

birth control 126 birth rates 4–5, 54, 126–7, 284 Black Death 46, 123, 130–1, 185 blacksmiths 139 blast-furnace sites 264 Blégny, Nicolas de 224 Blois, Countess of 148 Boinebrooke, Johannes 189, 203 Bologna commune 43, 74–5, 84 Bonardo, Giovan Maria 228–9 Bontekoe, Cornelis 224 book-keeping techniques 163–4 Braudel, Fernand 84, 200–1 Bremen, Bishop of 185 Browne, John 105–6, 269 Burkard, Bishop of Worms 36 Byzantine Empire 120, 189, 209, 210 Cantico delle Creature 202 capital 53, 79, 108–9; fixed 80–91 passim, 95; nonreproducible 91–3; working 80, 84, 88–91, 85 capitalism 253 Capitano del Popolo 113 Capua, Lionardo di 224 Carletti, Francesco 219–20 Carolingian Renaissance 189 Carolingian system (coinage) 173–4 Carus-Wilson, Eleanora 140 Cassiodorus 189 cast-iron ordnance 269–70 Castellane, Baron of 148 catastrophic mortality 5, 127, 128–36 Caterina de Medici 39 Catesby, John (expenditure) 29 Catherine II, Empress 276 Catholicism 6, 54, 76, 213 Cederna, A. 276 celibacy 4, 124 census data 3, 13, 64, 65, 71 Central Bank 160, 182 Certaldo, Paolo da 34, 122 Champagne fairs 190–1, 202 charcoal 232–3, 268, 269–70 charity 8, 12, 13, 16–19, 22, 129 Charlemagne 36, 83, 165, 174 Charles I, King of England 265 Charles II, King of England 223–4, 266

259

Charles VII, King of France 172, 207 Charles VIII, King of France 140, 207 Charles IX, King of France 39 Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor 21, 208, 242 Chaucer, Geoffrey 225, 278 children: employment of 59, 76–8; foundlings 56–8; infant mortality 126–8, 285 chocolate consumption 222–3, 224 choice, productivity and 97 Chrétien de Troyes 21–2 Christianity 184, 211; see also Church Christina, Queen of Sweden 275 Church 6, 22, 54, 91, 184, 211, 230; demand of 37, 45–9; ecclesiastical population 66–7, 68; monasteries 46–9, 73; Reformation 18, 46–8, 75, 76 Cieza de Leon, Pedro de 222 cities 189, 247; birth/death rates 4, 284; ecclesiastical population 66–7, 68; population 4, 54, 56, 273–4, 282–3; poverty in 12, 13, 16; rise of 118–22 city walls (construction) 42, 188 Clark, Colin 60 Clark, G.N. 154 Clement II, Pope 48–9 Cleveland, John 271 clocks 145, 150–2, 156, 158, 210 clothing expenditure 24, 25–6, 28–9 coal industry 70–2 cocoa consumption 222–3, 224 coffee consumption 223, 224 coins: currencies and 165–87; hoarding of 33–6 Colbert, Jean Baptiste 92, 158, 233, 254, 256, 257, 270 Coleman, D.C. 259 Columella, Lucius 277 commenda 161–2, 164 commerce-raiding 265 Commercial Revolution 226 Commines, Philippe de 140 communes 38, 79, 92, 112; of Bologna 43, 74–5, 84;

260

INDEX

of Florence, 42–3, 51, 203; of Geneva 48; of Genoa 17, 51; of Perugia 44; urban revolution 117–22 Comnenus, Isaac, Duke of Antioch 21 Como 244–5, 246 Comollo, Dionigi 156 compagnia 162–3, 248 Conquistadores 213 consumer spending 22–31 consumption function 31; see also incomes and consumption Conti, E. 49 contratto di commenda 161–2, 164 Corpus Juris 148 Coryat, Thomas 71, 72, 73 Coster, Laurens 156 costs of working capital 89–90 craftsmen 8, 43, 54, 74–5, 76–7, 79, 95, 156–9, 204–5, 230, 275 Cratzer, Nicholas 268 credit 199, 200; and enterprise 160–4 Crescenzi, Pietro 276 Cronaca (Chronicle) 119 Cronica (Pitti) 19 crop rotation 138, 139–40 Crusades/Crusaders 143, 174, 184, 211 cultural receptiveness (England) 267 Cunningham, W. 267 currencies (and coinage) 165–81 Cydone, Demetrius 210 Dallington, Robert 73, 112 Danish peninsula 187 Danse Macabre 202 Dante 99, 145, 196–7, 206, 247 Dark Ages 21, 102, 117, 118, 137, 140, 151, 189 Dati, Goro di Stagio 19 Datini, Francesco di Marco 16 de Berkeley, Thomas (expenditure) 29 de Chobham, Thomas 71 De Geer, Louis 99, 253 de Keyser, Thomas 254 de la Roncière 205 De Morbis Artificium Diatriba 113 de Zeeuw, J.W. 256–7 Deane, Phyllis 272–3

Defoe, Daniel 255 Delcher, R. 223 demand: analysis (type of) 3; of the Church 45–9; effective (needs and wants) 5–7; foreign 49–52; income distribution 7–22; population 3–5; private 22–37; public 37–45; types 22 demographic data 3–4, 123, 130–6 demographic pressures 130–6 “deposits” 181–2 Desiderio, Abbot 99 devaluation 171–3, 262 diet 5–6, 22–5, 27 Dion, Roger 256 discount rate (bonds) 216–17 disinvestment 90–1, 244, 247 domestic service/servants 30, 63–5 Dondi, Govanni De’ 151 dowries 19 Drake, Francis 265 Drang nach Osten 158, 184–5 Dron, Filippo 16–17 drugs/medicine 220–1, 222 Duncan, Dr Daniel 224 Dutch East India Company 96, 220–1, 226, 248, 253 Dyer, Christopher 73, 206 East India Company 164, 220, 223–4, 226, 248 Eastland Company 164 ecclesiastical populations 66–7, 68 economic developments (Europe) 209–10 economic power, changing balance (Europe): decline of Italy 241–9; decline of Spain 237–41; economic trends (1500–1700) 234–7; rise of England 257–73; rise of northern Netherlands 249–59 economic trends: (1300–1500) 198–208; (1500–1700) 234–7 Edict of Nantes 157 education 41–2, 58, 76–8 effective demand 5–7 Eleanor of Castile 270 Elizabeth I 44, 248

INDEX

energy: crisis 231–3, 269–71; supply 93, 268–9 England: agricultural productivity 100–1, 103; capital, 86, 87–8; economic trends (1300–1500) 202–6; foreign trade 50–1; Hundred Years’ War 109–10, 132–3, 172, 202, 207; income distribution 10–13; naval shipyards 86; population 56–7, 281; rise (as economic power) 259–75 English Lost Villages 203 Enlightenment 229 Ennen, Edith 118 enterprise: and credit 160–4; monetary trends 165–82 entrepreneurial activity 98 epidemics 154; see also plagues epizootic diseases 83 Eresby, Lord of 64–5 Esplechin armistice 200 Este, Cardinal Ippolito d’ 71 Ethelbert of Kent 165 Europe: AD 156 (map) 14–15; cities 4, 13, 64–8, 280–2; developed/underdeveloped 209–11; economic power (changing balance) 234–75; economic trends (1300–1500) 198–208; economic trends (1500- 1700) 234–7; expansion 211–27; Great Expansion (1000–1300) 183–98; origins of Industrial Revolution 276–9; population 3–5, 123–36, 282–3; Scientific Revolution 227–31; technology 137–59; urban revolution 117–22; see also individual countries Eustachi, Pasino degli 35 Evelyn, John 113 expansionism 211–27 exports 50–2, 260–1; re-exports 272–3; see also economic power, changing balance (Europe); foreign trade

261

factors of production: capital 79–91; inputs (classes of) 53–4; labor 54–79; natural resources 91–3; organization 94–6 factory system 59, 86–7, 95, 96 fairs 21–2, 71, 190–1, 202 famine 16, 17, 20, 23, 36, 128–30, 132, 198, 222 Fanucci, Giambattista 11 Far East trade 217, 219–21 feasts 25, 40–1 Feinstein, C.H. 98 Feltre, Father Bernardino de 160 Ferdinand I 92 Ferdinand of Aragon 207 Ferrara, Ricobaldo da 197, 206 fertility rates 4–5, 54, 119, 123–4, 125–7, 128, 132, 134 feudalism 79, 119–22 Fiochetto, G.F. 26 Fisher, F.J. 262, 263 fixed capital 80–91 passim, 95 Flamma, Galvano, 197, 206 Flemish textile industry 192–3, 201 Florence 8, 9, 47, 157, 188, 242–3; commune 42–3, 51, 203; economic trends 199–206; education 76–7; expansionism 188, 190–3, 195–6; families with servants 65–6 Fluyt 147, 257–8 Folognino of Verona 28 food 220; diet 5–6, 22–5, 27; reserves 42–3, 89, 90; see also crop rotation; famine; grain reserves foreign demand 49–52 foreign trade 49–52, 164; European expansion 211–27; see also economic power, changing balance (Europe) forests 92–3, 112, 232, 233, 268–9 Foscarini, Ambassador 252 foundlings 56–8 France 11–12, 280; agricultural productivity 100, 101; economic trends, 235–6; Hundred Years’ War 109–10, 132–3, 172, 202, 207

262

INDEX

Francis I 21, 38, 165 Frank, J.P. 59 Fromanteel, John 156 Fugger company 164, 208, 261 Fumifugium (pamphlet) 113 furnaces 264 Galen 6, 276, 277 Galileo 227, 230, 231 gambling 19 Garcia d’Orta 221 Gascon, R. 16 Gee, Joshua 11, 264 Geneva commune 48 Genoa 244, 245, 246, 248; commune 17, 51 Gentilini (gun founder) 265 George III 272 Germany: agricultural productivity 101; city population 280; economic trends 234–5; expansionism 184–6, 208; Hanseatic League 14–15, 163–4, 186, 188, 203, 234, 250–1, 259 gifts (and charity) 16–19 gilders (health hazards) 113–14 Giodarno, Father (da Pisa) 145 Giotto 99 Glaber, Raoul 36 glass-workers (health hazards) 114 Gloucestershire (occupational distribution) 64–5 Goddard, John 157 gold 213–14, 218–19, 234, 238–40 Goldthwaite, R.A. 205 Goubert, M. 135 Gould, J.D. 262 government debt (Spain) 240–1 grain reserves 8, 9, 42–3; productivity 100–3 “Grand Tour” 267 Graunt, John 132, 133–4, 228, 275 great expansion (1000–1300) 183–98 Grierson, P. 21 Gross National Product (size) 50 Grosse Ravensburger- handelsgesellschaft company 208 Grotius, Hugo 99, 254 Grousset 211 Gualdo, Count Priorato 244

Guibert, Abbot of Nogent 121 Guicciardini, Francesco 11, 237, 241 Guicciardini, Ludovico 251–2 guilds 77–9, 156, 238, 243, 247, 275 Gutenberg, Johann 106, 148, 150 Halley, Edmund 124, 228 Hals, Frans 254 Hamilton, E.J. 213 Hanseatic League 14–15, 163–4, 186, 188, 203, 234, 250– 1, 259 Harrison, William 269 health (occupational) 75–6, 113–14 health expenditure 41 Helvetian Confederation 193–4 Henry III 17 Henry V 44 Henry VII 50 Henry VIII 13, 46, 47, 262, 268 Hernandes, Francisco 220 Hicks, Sir John 80 Hilton 31–2 Hippocrates 276, 277 hoarding activities 33–7, 160 Hoffer, Eric 268 Hohenlohe, Kraft von 21 Hope, Ronald 265 Hopkins, S.V. 206 horseshoes 138–9 household expenditure 29–30 housing (and rent) 24, 26–7 Howes, Edmund 269, 270–1 Hudson, G.F. 212 Hugh Capet, King of France 170 Huguenots 266 Hundred Years’ War 109–10, 132–3, 172, 202, 207 Huygens, Christiaan 99, 156, 227, 254, 256 hygiene 197–8 Imhof family 28, 261 imports 50–2; see also economic power, changing balance (Europe); foreign trade income: of Church 45–9; distribution 7–22; purchasing power 7, 190, 240, 272; transfers 16–22; see also poverty;

INDEX

wealth incomes and consumption: great expansion (1000–1300) 183–98; trends (1300–1500) 198–208 Industrial Revolution: emergence of modern age 209–33; origins/complications 276–9 industry: factory system 59, 86–7, 95, 96; mass production 259; technology in 140–54; see also manufacturing sector; services infant mortality rate 126–8, 285 “ink money” 181–2 input (factors of production) 53–4, 96, 97 interest (and rents) 7 interest rates 89, 186, 199, 214, 216–17 international trade: European expansion 211–27; foreign demand 49–52; see also economic power, changing balance (Europe) investment 160–2, 182, 199; and disinvestment 90–1, 244, 247; and private demand 32–7; public 42, 43 iron industry 271–2 Isabella of Castile 207 Israel, J.I. 200, 251 Italy: agricultural productivity 100–3, 105; as economic power (decline) 234, 237, 241–9; economic trends 199–206, 207–8; expansionism 188–98; population 54, 56–8, 248–9, 280; professionals in cities 69; Renaissance (map) 104 James I 44, 222 Jevons, W.S. 277 John II (the Bountiful) 172 Johnson, Samuel 274 joint stock companies 160, 164 Kedar, B.Z. 162 King, Gregory 10, 13, 32, 86, 87, 228 Kohler, H. 18 labor 53, 108–9, 253;

active population 7, 54–60, 69; children 59, 76–8; education and training 76–8; guilds 77–8, 79, 156, 238, 243, 247, 275; occupational distribution 60–75; slavery 137, 154, 225–6; skilled 74–5, 156–7; unemployment 13, 16, 241; women 59–60, 61; working conditions 75–6, 113–14; see also artisans; craftsmen; peasants; wages Lafaurie, Jean 172 land expansionism 183–98 land resources 91–3 Lane, Frederic C. 145 Lane, Ralph 222 lawyers 69–70 Ledesma, Antonio Colmenero de 223 Lee, Edmund 144 Leeuwenhoek, Anton van 99, 227 Leicester, Earl and Countess of 64 Leonardo Da Vinci 152, 225 Letwin, William 228 Levant Company 164 Lilley, Samuel 138 Lisov, Elizabetta Ludmilla de 223 Liutprando of Cremona 209 livestock 81–4, 86, 102–3, 105, 110 living conditions 197–8, 204–5, 206 Lombe, John 154–5 Lombe, Sir Thomas 86 London 273–5, 283 Lost Villages (English) 203 Louis IX 26, 170, 171 Louis XI 87 Low Countries (city population) 281 Ludwig, Emperor (of Bavaria) 200 Lupo, Francesco 26 luxury investments 91 Luzzatto, G. 239 Lyon 8, 9 Machiavelli, Niccolò 276 Maitani, L. 198 maize cultivation 222 Makrizi, Ahmed Al- 210

263

264

INDEX

Malassis, Louis 63 Malthus, Thomas 91 manorial system 94 manufacturing sector 60–3, 73, 84, 86; economic trends and 203–4; organization 95–6; productivity 105–7; technology 140–54 Mare Clausum/Mare Liberum 275 Margherita of Anjou 127 markets 21 Marradon, B. 222 marriage patterns/trends 124–6, 134 Martini, Francesco di Giorgio 152 Masi, Bartolomeo 30 mass production 259 Matthews, R.O.C. 98 Mauro di Carignano, Giovanni 162 Medici family 39, 260 medicine/drugs 220–1, 222 medieval productivity levels 100–7 Mercado, Tomás de 238 merchant navy (England) 274 merchants 53–4, 79, 95, 261–2 Merton College 81 Methuen Treaty 52 Meuse, Jean d’Outre 202 Michael, Tsar of Russia 222 Michael VII, Emperor 21 migration 119, 156–9, 185, 266–7 Milan 44, 57–8, 196–7, 242, 245–6; Duke of 35, 158, 203; Public Health Board 26–7 military sector: expenditure 42–5, 91, 262; livestock use 82–3; see also weapons/weaponry mills 86–7, 93, 140–3, 257; see also water mills; windmills miners (health hazards) 113 mining sector 86, 92, 95–6, 270–1 Mocenigo, Alvise 272 modern age (emergence of): energy crisis 231–2; European development 209–11; European expansion 211–27; Scientific Revolution 227–31 Mols, Father 135

Monardes, Nicolas 221 monasteries 46–9, 73, 80–1 monetary trends/money 165–82 money-changers 181, 182 Mongol Empire 211, 223 Montaigne, Michel de 71, 127 Monti di Petà 160 mortality rates 4–5, 26, 54, 119, 284; infant mortality 126–8, 285; plague epidemics 123–4, 126–36; see also catastrophic mortality; normal mortality Moryson, Fynes 72, 124, 125, 248 Müller, Reinhold C. 182 Muscovy Company 164 Muslims 6, 211 Mussis, Giovanni de 206 Myddelton, Sir Thomas 265 Nantes, Edict of 157 Naples (public expenditure) 45 natural resources 53, 91–3 Navagero, Bernardo 42 Navigation Acts 265–6 navigation techniques 144–5, 148, 150 212, 225–6 needs, demand and 5–6 negative production 108–14 Netherlands (rise as economic power) 249–59 Newton, Isaac 227, 275 Nicot, Jean 222 nonreproducible capital 91–3 normal mortality 5, 127–8, 132, 135 northern Netherlands (rise as economic power) 249–59 Northern United Provinces 250, 252–3, 257 notaries 69–70 Nuñez de Castro, Alfonso 239 Nuovo Teatro di Machine et Edificii (Zonca) 154–5 Oakeshott, Michael 155 occupational diseases 75–6, 113–14 occupational distribution of population 60–75 Odescalchi family 28, 32 Offa, King of Mercia 165 Ogödäi (Mongol chief) 211 Ommayad Dynasty 209 Order of Saint John of Jerusalem 110 Order of the Teutonic Knights 185 Oresme, Nicola 172 organization (factors of production) 94–6

INDEX

Orleans, Bishop of 36 Orseolo, Pietro II (Doge of Venice) 189 Orta, Garcia da 221 Ortelius, A. 256 Ospedale degli Innocenti 57 Ospedale della Misericordia 57 Ospedale della Pietà 56, 57 Otto of Frisingen 121 output (factor of production) 53, 97–114 Pacioli, Father Luca 160 Padua, Mayor of 128 Paleologus, Constantine 210 Paolo di Messere Pace da Certaldo 34 Paracelsus 276 Paradiso (Dante) 196–7 Pareto, Vilfredo 10 partnerships 161–4 Pavis (grain reserves) 8–9 Peace of the Pyrenees (1659) 239 peasants 8, 16, 23, 26–7, 202, 234 Peasants’ Revolt 202, 234 Pedro I 46 Pepys, Samuel 35–6, 275 Périgord College 60 Perugia (public expenditure) 44 Peter the Great 276 Petty, Sir William 82, 132, 228, 275 Phelps Brown, E.H. 206 Philip II Augustus, King of France 170 Philip IV, King of France 92, 171 Philip VI, King of France 172 Philip II, King of Spain 220, 240 Philippe d’Alsace, Count of Flanders 43 physicians 69–70 Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni 17 Pietro, Giovan 96 Pirenne, Henri 188, 278 Pitti, Buonaccorso 19 Pius II, Pope 211 Pius V, Pope 73 plagues 25–7, 31, 43, 90; Black Death 46, 123, 130–1, 185; and economic trends 202–5; famine after 17, 128–30, 132, 198; and population trends 123–36, 248–9 Plato 230 plow (development) 138, 139 plunder (and theft) 20–1, 34, 265

pollution 110–13 Polo, Marco 150, 165, 210, 247 Pombal, Marquis of 52 Poor Laws 13 population: active see active population; age distribution 54–7, 123; of cities 4, 54, 56, 273–5, 282–3; and demand 3–5; density 130–1, 133; migration 119, 156–9, 185, 266–7; occupational distribution 60–75; preindustrial characteristics (Sweden) 284; trends 123–36, 248–9; world (estimates) 228–9; see also birth rates; fertility rates; mortality rates Porisni, G. 49 Portugal 203, 207–8 portus theory 118, 122 positive production 107–8 Postan, M.M. 91 potato cultivation 222 potters (health hazards) 114 poverty 7–8, 10–13, 27, 31, 91, 127; transfer payments 16–22 Price Revolution 214, 247 primary sector 60, 62, 63; see also agriculture; mining sector print technology 106, 148–9, 150–1 Priuli, Antonio 17 private demand 22–37 privateering 265 production: determinants 97–9; factors see factors of production; factory system 59, 86–7, 95, 96; mass 259; negative 108–14; positive 107–8; and productivity 97–114 production (incomes and consumption): great expansion (1000–1300) 183–98; trends (1300–1500) 198–208 productivity 7, 58–9; and choice 97; medieval/Renaissance levels 100–7

265

266

INDEX

productivity and production: choice and productivity 97; determinants of production 97–9; medieval/Renaissance levels 100–7; negative production 108–14; positive production 107–8 professionals 69–70 profits 7 prostitution 71–3 Protestants 48, 54, 76, 230 proto-industrialization 247 public debt 38–9 public demand 37–45 purchasing power 7, 190, 240, 272 putting-out system 60 Raleigh, Sir Walter 222, 254 Ramazzini, Dr Bernardino 30, 111, 113–14, 128 Ramsey, Colonel A. 21 ransoms 21 recession 91 Reformation 18, 46–8, 75, 76 refugees (immigrant labor) 266–7 Relazione di Spagna (Guicciardini) 237–8 religions see Church religious investments 91 Renaissance 230, 278; productivity levels 100–7; urban development 117–22 rent 7, 24, 26–7 Revue numismatique 33–4 Ricardo, David 91, 249 Riccardi family 32 Richelieu, Cardinal Armand, Duc de 129, 236 Ricobaldo da Ferrara 197, 206 Riva, Bonvesin della 196 robbery (and theft) 20–1, 34, 265 Robert of Anjou 200 Roman Catholicism 6, 54, 76, 213 Rome (prostitution) 72, 73 Rondinelli, F. 26 Roumieu, Paul 157 Royal Charles, The (ship) 35 Royal Society of London 230 rural labor 73–5 Russia 217, 283 St John’s Hospital (Cambridge) 29 Saints (cult of) 153, 154

Salimbene, Father (of Parma) 119 Sanuto, Marino 129 Sapori, A. 163 Savary de Brulons, J. 234–5 savings 31–7, 91, 160–2, 164, 182, 186 Savoy, Duke of 13 Sayous, André 163 Schertlin, Sebastian 20 Schumpeter, Joseph 98 Schwarz, Mattäus 164 Scientific Revolution 152, 227–31 Scuola di San Rocco 18 secondary sector see manufacturing sector Segni, Abbot 130 Seignelay, Marquis de 233, 270 “seigniorage” 165, 170–1 services: demand for 22–31; domestic service 30, 63–5; tertiary sector 60–3, 73, 84, 95–6 Sforza, Galeazzo Maria 175 sharecropping 7, 54, 94 shareholders 163 shipbuilding 86, 95–6, 145–8, 150, 212, 225, 232, 257–8, 270 Sigfersson, Anders 158 Sigismund, Archduke (of Tyrol) 175 Signes, Guillaume de 20 Signorie (establishment of) 241 silk industry 244, 245, 246 silver 218–20, 234, 238–40; deposits (in Americas) 213, 215–17; outputs 174–5, 176–8 skilled labor 74–5, 156–7 slavery 137, 154, 225–6 social class, marriage and 124–5 Société du Bazacle 160 sociocultural factors 278; and needs 5–7 Sombart, Werner 253 Spain 10–11, 213, 215; city population 281; as economic power (decline) 234–5, 235–9; wars 39, 239–41, 252 Spanish Armada 265, 268 Spanish Company 164 spectacles 145, 150 spinning wheel 145, 149 Spinola, Porchetto 162

INDEX

Standish, Arthur 269 statistical approach (origins) 228–9 statistics of employment 78 steam engine 231 stock exchange 160, 253 stocks and inventories 88–91 Stow, John 266, 267 sugar consumption 225 sulphur workers (health hazards) 114 sumptuary laws 262 Sung Dynasty 209 Sweden: land ownership 47–8; population structure 54–7, 283; preindustrial population characteristics 286 Switzerland: city populations 283; Helvetian Conference 193–4 Sydenham, Thomas 113 Tadino, A. 16 Talbot, Sir Gilbert (expenditure) 29 T’ang Dynasty 209 tanners (health hazards) 114 Tartaglia, Niccolò 230 Taula de Barcelona, 182 taxation 16, 20, 22, 39–40, 245, 247; and monetary trends 165, 170–1 tea consumption 223–4 technology 74, 98, 106; developments (1000–1700) 137–54; Scientific Revolution 152, 227–31; spread/diffusion of 154–9 Téméraire, Charles le 87 tertiary sector see services Teutonic Knights 185 textiles industry 86, 192–3, 201; silk cloth 244, 245, 246; woollens production 105, 242–4, 246, 260–3, 268 theft 20–1, 34, 265 Theodoric, Bishop of Bitonto 145, 189 Thirty Years’ War 20–1, 110, 133, 236 Tiepolo, Paolo 73 timber crisis 231–2, 233 Titlow, J.Z. 100 tobacco consumption 222 towns (development) 119, 120, 122 Tractaat (Bontekoe) 224 trade 235;

267

enterprise and credit 160–4; fairs and markets 21–2, 71, 190–1, 202; and monetary trends 165–82; see also economic power, changing balance (Europe); foreign trade training (and education) 76–8 transport (livestock use) 82, 84 Tripps (industrialists) 99 tropical products 272–3 Turkish Empire 211–12, 231 Turko-Persian War 244 Tuscany: Grand Duke of 48, 73; population 3, 67, 285 Uffici dell’Abbondanza 42 underdevelopment (Europe) 209–11 unemployment 13, 16, 241 Unger, R.W. 254 University of Leyden 254 University of Modena 113 University of Padua 113 urban revolution (communes) 117–22 urban societies 73–5, 78–9 urbanization 185–6; and epidemics 133, 134–5 Urseau, Nicholas 268 Van Bath, Slicher 100 Van de Velde, William 254 Van Ellemeet, Cornelis de Jonge 30, 32 Van Linschoten, J.H. 219 Van Schoonbeke, Gilbert 96 Vasa, Gustav 47 Vauban, S. La Preste de 9–10, 11 Vendramin, Ambassador 239 Venice 57–8, 242–3, 244, 246; apprenticeships, 77–8 Ventura, Giovannino di 113 Vereinigde Ostindische Compagnie 248 Verona, Father Girolamo da 43 Villani, Giovanni 16, 76, 195, 200 Villani, Matteo 204–5 Villermé, L.R. 75–6 Violet, T. 267 Visconti, Filippo Maria (Duke of Milan) 35, 158, 203 Visconti, Gian Galeazzo 203 Waddington, C.H. 279

268

INDEX

wages 7–8, 30, 54, 79, 203–6, 247, 257 Wahlstatt, Battle of (1241) 211 Walker, P.G. 151–2 Walloons 156, 253, 266 Walter of Henley 139 Wang Hong 211 wants, effective demand and 6–7 war 252, 261–2; catastrophic mortality 128–9, 132–3; debt/costs 199–200; as negative production 108–11; plunder 20–1, 34; Spanish succession 39, 239–41; see also Hundred Years’ War; Thirty Years’ War water mills 80–1, 137, 138, 140–3, 154–5, 210 Watts, Sir John 265 wealth 7–8, 9–11; consumption by wealthy 27–31; hoarding 33–7; savings 31–7; transfer payments 16–22 weapons/weaponry 87, 145, 148, 150 233, 268, 269–70 weekly markets 21 Welsers company 259 Weston, Richard 140 wet nurses 5–6, 60 White, Lynn 138, 148, 211 William I 109 Wilson, Charles 13, 253 windmills 80–1, 143–4, 150, 256–7 Witsen, Nicolaes 156, 159, 257 women’s employment 59–60, 61 woollen industry 105, 242–4, 246, 260–2, 268 working capital 80, 84, 88–91, 95 working conditions 75–6, 113–14 workshops 60, 95, 96 world population (estimates) 228–9 Wrigley, E.A. 126 Wüstungen 203 Yüan Dynasty 223 Zinsser, Hans 129 Zonca, Vittorio 154–5

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